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Nursing Staffing challenges in Maryland

Nursing Staffing challenges in Maryland

Nurse Staffing challenges in Maryland.

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The medical profession has been witnessing rapid growth mostly in the demand for the primary care services. Although this growth was somehow expected, it has not been accompanied by an increase in the number of doctors. This has led to the health care industry in Maryland calling upon the nurses into action.

Unfortunately, the nursing field is also facing its own shortages in staff numbers and who operate under very demanding schedules. Previous studies like the one by the University of Maryland Nursing School (Nursing research 2011 quoted in Rajaraman 2013)Bottom of Form.One of the issues that were associated with low numbers of staff was the long hour shifts. These long hours at work and reduced off job hours contributed to poor patient handling and even deaths from avoidable errors.

The cadres that have been targeted mostly to replace the physicians are the nurse practitioners who have the skills to perform the tasks of a physician. This is only a stop gap measure since as indicated above; this has a domino effect on the lower job cadres.

Currently, Maryland’s population of nurses stands at 49,600, registered nurses who are active. Of these, 3,500 are nurse practitioners which mean they hold master’s degrees and a board of nursing license. The Government of Governor Martin O’Malley has committed to increase the population of nurses by 25% by 2020 partly via improving educational access as well as address the burden the medical staff faces (Gantz 2012).

In the words of Phyllis Snyder the vice president of the council for adult learning, it is not business as usual and we have to develop a variety of new pathways. One of these ways has been the concerted effort by health advocacy groups and nursing training institutions towards increase their drives towards having more students in the college level to choose nursing as a career. The groups are also encouraging nurses who are already in practice to pursue higher qualifications (Hoffman & Kaplan, 1998).

Schools have also embarked on missions to make nursing studies more accessible and affordable through inter schools partnerships, credit earned against prior experience and offering support towards tuition. The state on its part is designing ways in which it enhances access to nursing training as well as attracts more nurses into the state’s workforce.

An earlier report from the CGME (Council for Graduate Medical education) had established that only fewer than 20% of med school grandaunts pursue primary care as careers instead going for specialties with higher pay (Goldfarb, Goldfarb & Long 2008).Under the prevailing circumstances, nurses have been more than willing to take up the challenge of filling the gap but are forced to grapple with regulation and bureaucracy issues. For example, an assistant dean at the school of nursing University of Maryland Jane Kapustin bemoans the fact that she can legally diagnose diabetes at the university of Maryland Medical Center diabetes clinic, issue a prescription for insulin and commission tests but if she were to recommend special shoes, a physician would have to sign against the order.

It is encouraging to note that nurses in collaboration with advocacy organizations are exerting pressure to have the barriers reduced and it is hoped that these efforts combined with the pressure from increased need for additional primary care providers will eventually break the barriers.

References.Gantz S (2012). Maryland Nurses Come to fore as care landscape shifts, Baltimore Business Journal. Retrieved from http://www.bizjournals.com/baltimore/print-edition/2012/07/20/nurses-come-to-fore-as-care-landscape.html?page=all.Top of Form

Goldfarb, M., Goldfarb, R., & Long, M. (January 01, 2008). Making Sense of Competing Nursing Shortage Concepts. Policy, Politics, and Nursing Practice, 9, 3, 192-202.Top of Form

Hoffman, S., & Kaplan, M. (January 01, 1998). Problems encountered in the implementation of dementia care programs. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, 13, 4, 197-202.

Rajaraman M (2013) Study suggests link between lengthy Nurse shifts and patient deaths. Southern Maryland online. Accessed from http://somd.com/news/headlines/2011/13155.shtml.Bottom of Form

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The concept of reflection in nursing, Qualitative findings on student and teacher perspectives Critique

The concept of reflection in nursing, Qualitative findings on student and teacher perspectives Critique

Nurse Education in Practice: The concept of reflection in nursing: Qualitative findings on student and teacher perspectives Critique

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Institution

Course

Date

Limitations of the studies reviewed require that caution be used in the application of the findings to educational programs. As indicated above, occupational health nursing practice involves the synthesis of principles form nursing, public health, and other disciplines. However, several researchers used a task-oriented approach to identify practice elements rather than a clearly identified conceptual approach to curriculum derivation. This is not surprising given the relative newness of research in occupational health nursing.

All studies reviewed involved some form of descriptive research, with survey designs employed most frequently. One study was national in scope, one regional, two statewide, and all other locals. Excepting where total populations were used, sample selection was mostly purposive or by convenience, and sample size often were small. In all but one study, instruments were developed by the authors. Contents validity either was explicitly or implied; however, no other types of validity or reliability were reported. Lack of instrument testing may have been due to the general lack of research conducted in occupational health nursing prior. Data were analysis mostly using descriptive and nonparametric statistical techniques, which is consistent with the type and state of the research.

A significant role of a research that is well demonstrated in this research is the incorporation of ethical approval and ensuring the wellbeing of participants. This based on the research was achieved by going through a process of formal ethical approval. However, the non-predictive nature of action research means that it is also important to mutually agree an ethical code of practice at the start of the study. Winter (2001) highlights various ethical code issues and principles of procedure. First they emphasize the importance of maintaining a professional relationship, guided by a duty of care and respect for the individual; regardless of gender, age, and ethnicity along with a respect for cultural diversity and individual dignity, as well as protection from harm. This last principle is part of any special researcher’s role, in addition to the need for informed consent and honesty. However, Winter (2001) suggest that there are other principles of procedure that should be followed in action research.

Having an ethical code of practice does not negate the additional need for research governance and formal ethical approval for action research. However, these quality processes are made all the more complex by the action researcher not being able to say in advance what the research will do. Action research proposals need to be written in collaboration with participants, often as co-applicants, with an inbuilt degree of flexibility. The action researcher should indicate the likely course of the study, specify the need for flexibility and enter into open and ongoing dialogue with ethical committees to seek approval for emergent changes in design.

Credibility of the finding

The study takes both qualitative and quantitative approaches to achieve the desired objectives. The qualitative approach will help in the examination of the current demographic factors exploring the various factors that act as drivers to the effectiveness and satisfaction level of the social workers (Jeon, 2004). This method is appropriate because initially the research aims to examine the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the beneficiaries bearing in mind the diverse nature of the contemporary social workers but using a qualitative approach exploring the perceptions that drive the formulation and adoption of the management strategies.

The literature examines original investigations, other literature reviews, peer reviewed academic literature, research databases, reviews, journals in various academic fields and original manuscripts that relate to beneficiary satisfaction (Charmaz, 2006). One of the most recent studies, which directly involved investigation of customer satisfaction of user is the study carried out by SSP (2006). Since a search in the research databases produces a big number of results, the reviewed literature sources are picked on a random- sample strategy (Camilla, 2003).

Reliability and validityThe performance of any research tool is usually measured in terms of reliability, validity and sensitivity as well as specificity. These concepts will also be applied in this study by the researcher to ascertain the reliability of the study. According to Waliman (2005), reliability is the ability by which a study is able to produce results that are consistent and stable over a given period of time and given similar circumstances (Waliman, 2005). Various types of validities exist that include internal validity and external validity. Internal validity relates to the correlation between items when measured on a scale. Whenever a study provides the same results after the application of two different measures, the outcome is said to be equivalent.

Validity is the extent to which a given instrument is designed to measure. The validity of a study can vary in different samples used. In one situation, a study can be valid while in other scenarios, it may not. The validity of a study is measured by what the study claims to and the availability of logical errors in the conclusions drawn from the study. According to Crotty (2003), internal validity is the extent to which it is possible to make independent reference from the findings of a study especially if the independent variable influences the dependent variable. On the other hand, external validity is the general application of the findings of a study to other settings.

The measurement of the theoretical construct of a study is measured using construct validity while convergent validity makes comparison between the scores that are obtained from different instruments that are used in the study. Unlike convergent validity, divergent validity compares the instruments used in the study that measure concepts that are opposite. Given the above validity and reliability, the study is valid ad reliable for use by any person or strategic department (Waliman, 2005)

Internal validity of the research is low as with most field research. A number of factors are likely to impact on the amount and type of collected data. Some of the factors that have been identified to cause an impact on the internal validity of a study include the following. The variety of information collected from various people and sources might contradict. For instance, in one study, the researchers found out that the management had created different environments for the social workers (Jeon, 2004).

Another notable threat to the research validity is the method of selection that might be (though the probability cannot be determined) biased. Since participation in the study by respondents is voluntary, selection bias is likely to affect the internal validity. Instrumentation is also identified by the scholars as another factor that affects internal validity. In this threat, any change or alterations made in the measurement of variables or changes in the techniques of observation may justify changes in the measurement that is ultimately obtained. This is evident from various researches (Camilla, 2003). A good way of dealing with this threat is to ensure consistency of the data analysis method used and techniques applied by the authors.

Research approach

This research will take a deductive approach that will entail the researcher working from a known hypothesis that teamwork affects positively the employee performance in the strategic management department in ADP. Thus, the study takes a top down approach as compared to the inductive approach that takes an up down strategy.

A study that is quantitative usually makes an emphasis on transforming the data quantities and the models of statistics for purposes of measuring and analyzing data. The research topics in which researchers use this method have clear idea of what they look or search for and tools like questionnaires are used to collect data. Quantitative approach has its focus on the preciseness of data that is seen in terms of measuring data. Quantitative approach to a research involves using statistical data analyses to obtain information about the study simply because the approach is based on measuring the quantity or amount.

To realize the use deductive approach, quantitative tools of collective and analyzing data like questionnaires and interviews were used. Quantitative tools were preferred as compared to qualitative tools because they enable the researcher to come up with facts like a hypothesis that teamwork can improve the performance of employees in the strategic department of ADP and thereafter testing and confirming the hypothesis. This is unlike qualitative tools that first come up with an abstract idea that is followed by creation of theories and concepts about the idea. Lastly, data in quantitative research is hard and reliable as compared with qualitative research where data that is just rich and deep (Quinn, 2002).

In addition to the above, this study takes a positivism kind of philosophy towards the impact of teamwork o employee performance in strategic management department in ADP. A positivism approach will make us understand more the impact of teamwork on not only employees but also overall organization. On the contrary, a qualitative approach to research makes the researcher to switch his focus to gaining a better understanding of the problem of the research by giving detailed information about the main theme of the study topic. The major goal of a qualitative study is to have a complete and detailed description of the study phenomenon by applying reasoning. Qualitative research involves the use of interviews and observations to collect data and there are no formal measurements involved. Qualitative approach makes the researcher understand the phenomenon under study and be in a position to describe the whole situation as it is. The approach consists of descriptions, quotes, observations, and excerpts from books and other documents (Quinn, p. 2002, p. 308).

Bibliography

Caldwell, E., 2003, Research Designs and their applications: Connecticut, USA: Engage

Publishers.

Camilla, M., 2003, Textbook of basic Research Methods. New York, USA: Lippincott

Williams & Wilkins. Pp. 45-56.

Charmaz, K., 2006, Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Clarke, A., 2005, Situational Analysis: Grounded Theory After the Postmodern Turn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Jeon, Y., 2004, The application of grounded theory and symbolic interactionism: Sydney, Australia. University of technology.

Kabala, M., 2005, Modern Research Methods and Techniques. New York, USA: Lippincott

Learning.

Mandan, S., 2005, Branding and Marketing: Modern salons. New York, USA: Lippincott

Williams & Wilkins.

Munhall, L., 2007, Nursing research: a qualitative perspective. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

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Number of lateral structural arrangement used in an organization

Number of lateral structural arrangement used in an organization

Number of lateral structural arrangement used in an organization

Introduction

The structure of an organization dictates the flow of information in an organization. The flow of information can take different procedures depending on the structures put in place by the organization’s management. They tell who reports to whom in an organization (Favereau & Lazega, 2002). In most organizations, the power of decision making only rests with the top management, however, in some organizations, the decision-making responsibilities are shared and then distributed throughout the organization. In lateral structural arrangement, the arrangements of information consist of the structures that have been decentralized, with different departments working together for achieving a single goal as opposed to where the departments work independently as separate entities. Since lateral structured organizations offer diversity when it comes to decision-making and management by bringing different sectors together, it provides the best structures to be employed by organizations (Favereau & Lazega, 2002).

Lateral structural arrangements can be classified as follows

Integrated roles

It is usually not easy to get a leader who is accepted by all departments to be a cross-departments leader. This Problem arises because each department would be willing to provide a leader from their department. To help eradicate this problem, integrated roles for project managers, product managers, program managers are introduced. The powers created for this integrated leaders should be predetermined. The individuals tasked with integrated roles should be armed with external powers that are very strong and highly persuasive (Favereau & Lazega, 2002).

Mutual adjustments

Here the managers of the same ladder make a joint decision and therefore avoids decisions being referred upwards.

Liaison role

This class of leadership arrangement aims at reducing the rank’s coordination effort, when different types of communications exist between two separate departments. In this case, a liaison manager is chosen to go and foster communication.

Managerial linking role

This involves an addition of financial control to integrated roles with an intention of allocating the budget in the first place to administrative coordinating pins that are also tasked with buying products from line managers.

Team decision

These are teams of manager who are continuously given the task of changing temporary task force into permanent interdepartmental team.

Task force

In a situation where many departments get involved in decision making, a non-permanent task force from various departments can be created on a short term basis. It will be found that the decision arrived at here tend to be of high quality than when it is handled by an individual.

In conclusion, Lateral leadership is helpful to an organization because it allows numerous decisions, different kinds of decisions, better and faster decision making. This type of leadership also makes the managers free from discussing non-operational issues affecting their organizations. The possible disadvantages may include additional cost involved in lateral structured leadership because as many people are involved in communication, more cost is directly or indirectly incurred. Other disadvantages here may include lack of total optimization of power as middle managers may sometimes lack the overall overview fro top managers in decision making. These advantages of lateral structured leadership arrangement overwhelm its disadvantages therefore it should be adopted by all organizations.

References

Favereau, O., & Lazega, E. (2002). Conventions and structures in economic organization: Markets, networks, and hierarchies. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

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Null Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis

Null Hypothesis

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

A null hypothesis refers to a general statement that proposes that no statistical significance exists in a set of given observations. It shows that no variations exist between variables, or that a single variable is no different than zero. A null hypothesis is presumed to be true until statistical evidence nullifies it for an alternative hypothesis, (Koch, 2013). Null hypothesis is very important in research and should be treated in specific ways as illustrated below.

A null hypothesis is required in research since it is used in verifying statistical assumptions, to directly advance a theory, to verify that multiple experiments produce consistent results and to reduce scientific claims based on statistical noise. When drawing conclusions from collected data, a null hypothesis is rejected if there is strong enough evidence against the null hypothesis. However, a null hypothesis is accepted if there is no strong enough evidence against the null hypothesis.

There exists a relationship between a hypothesis and the identified problem. The research problem is the statement about an area of concern, a condition to be improved, a difficult situation or a troubling question. However, the identified problem does not state how to do something or to present a value question. For this reason, a hypothesis is developed to present the issue for research. During a study the identified problem is the question statement while the hypothesis is the answer to the question statement.

A feasible hypothesis refers to one which can be easily and conveniently done. A hypothesis is feasible if it includes an explanation of why the guess may be collect. A hypothesis is considered feasible where it explains the concrete terms expected to happen in the particular circumstance, and it should have two variables.

Any hypothesis should be testable and measurable. To ensure that a hypothesis is testable one needs to first begin by predicting about what will occur in a certain situation. One then assesses whether the hypothesis is observable. A testable hypothesis needs to be one that can be observed, for example a physical experiment, (Powers & Powers, 2012). To ascertain that the hypothesis is measurable, one has to make sure that the hypothesis can be compared to something else to verify whether it is true.

References

Koch, K. R. (2013). Parameter estimation and hypothesis testing in linear models. Springer Science & Business Media.

Powers, D. A., & Powers, D. I. A. N. N. E. (2012). Predicting gene frequencies in natural populations: a testable hypothesis. Isozymes. IV. Genetics and evolution, 63-84.

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Null Hypothesis Significance

Null Hypothesis Significance

Null Hypothesis Significance Testing

Please analyze the data according to the NHST steps. Show your work and respond to as much of the following as you can.

STUDY 1

STEP 1 Design a study (Make a choice for the items that have a choice/choice below)

a) observation/correlation/experiment?

b) Model variable is IV/predictor/QIV/none?

c) Outcome variable is nominal/ordinal/interval/ratio?

d) Model variable is continuous/discrete?

e) What parametric assumptions still need checking?

Assume representativeness = yes and linearity = yes.

f) RQ: What is the effect/association of _____________ on/to ___________?

STEP 2 State mutually exclusive hypotheses

a) H0:

b) H1:

STEP 3 Calculate test statistic(s), df, and effect size(s). Indicate whether the effect size(s) are small, medium, large.

STEP 4 Compare to alpha level

STEP 5 Invoke a decision rule and draw a conclusion(s)

STEP 6 Interpret and report Write up the results in APA style, include appropriate descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and effect size. Interpret the results in terms of the research question(s).

Results

STUDY 2

STEP 1 Design a study (Make a choice for the items that have a choice/choice below)

a) observation/correlation/experiment?

b) Model variable is IV/predictor/QIV/none?

c) Outcome variable is nominal/ordinal/interval/ratio?

d) Model variable is continuous/discrete?

e) What parametric assumptions still need checking?

Assume representativeness = yes and linearity = yes.

f) RQ: What is the effect/association of _____________ on/to ___________?

STEP 2 State mutually exclusive hypotheses

a) H0:

b) H1:

STEP 3 Calculate test statistic(s), df, and effect size(s). Indicate whether the effect size(s) are small, medium, large.

STEP 4 Compare to alpha level

STEP 5 Invoke a decision rule and draw a conclusion(s)

STEP 6 Interpret and report Write up the results in APA style, include appropriate descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and effect size. Interpret the results in terms of the research question(s).

Results

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Null Hypothesis Significance Testing

Null Hypothesis Significance Testing

Null Hypothesis Significance Testing

Please analyze the data according to the NHST steps. Show your work and respond to as much of the following as you can.

STUDY 1

STEP 1 Design a study (Make a choice for the items that have a choice/choice below)

a) observation/correlation/experiment?

b) Model variable is IV/predictor/QIV/none?

c) Outcome variable is nominal/ordinal/interval/ratio?

d) Model variable is continuous/discrete?

e) What parametric assumptions still need checking?

Assume representativeness = yes and linearity = yes.

f) RQ: What is the effect/association of the number of hours worked on/to the number of publications?

STEP 2 State mutually exclusive hypotheses

a) H0: There is no association between the number of hours worked and the number of publications by a faculty member

b) H1: There is an association between the number of hours worked and the number of publications by a faculty member

STEP 3 Calculate test statistic(s), df, and effect size(s). Indicate whether the effect size(s) are small, medium, large.

Pearson correlation0.604

Df = 20 – 1 = 19

P-value0.005

STEP 4 Compare to alpha level

A p-value of 0.005 is statistically significant for an alpha level of 0.05

STEP 5 Invoke a decision rule and draw a conclusion(s)

The null hypothesis is rejected if we have a statistically significant p-value. We therefore conclude that there is an association between the number of hours worked and the number of publications by a faculty member

STEP 6 Interpret and report Write up the results in APA style, include appropriate descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and effect size. Interpret the results in terms of the research question(s).

Results

Correlation: hours, num_pubsCorrelations

Pearson correlation 0.604

P-value 0.005

Descriptive Statistics: num_pubs, hours

Statistics

Variable N N* Mean SE Mean StDevMinimum Q1 Median Q3 Maximum

num_pubs20 0 7.45 2.98 13.31 0.00 0.25 1.00 9.25 49.00

hours 20 0 24.85 3.28 14.65 5.00 13.00 21.50 40.25 50.00

STUDY 2

STEP 1 Design a study (Make a choice for the items that have a choice/choice below)

a) observation/correlation/experiment?

b) Model variable is IV/predictor/QIV/none?

c) Outcome variable is nominal/ordinal/interval/ratio?

d) Model variable is continuous/discrete?

e) What parametric assumptions still need checking?

Assume representativeness = yes and linearity = yes.

f) RQ: What is the effect/association of _____________ on/to ___________?

STEP 2 State mutually exclusive hypotheses

a) H0:

b) H1:

STEP 3 Calculate test statistic(s), df, and effect size(s). Indicate whether the effect size(s) are small, medium, large.

STEP 4 Compare to alpha level

STEP 5 Invoke a decision rule and draw a conclusion(s)

STEP 6 Interpret and report Write up the results in APA style, include appropriate descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and effect size. Interpret the results in terms of the research question(s).

Results

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Null and alternate hypotheses

Null and alternate hypotheses

Null and alternate hypotheses           

 

Week X Y XY XX 1 29 21 609 841 2 35 32 1120 1225 3 41 11 451 1681 4 32 26 832 1024 Total ∑X = 137 ∑Y = 90 ∑ XY = 3012 ∑XX = 4771 Given n = 4, ∑X = 137 Mean = ∑X / n Standard Deviation (s) = √ ∑{(X – x)(X – x)} / n Mean = 137 / 4 Standard Deviation (s) = √ 17689 / 4 Mean = 34.25 Standard Deviation (s) = √ 4422.25 Standard Deviation (s) = 66.5 The null and alternate hypothesis here becomes:

H0: μ ≥ 34.25

H1: μ < 34.25

The hypothesis test statistics is:

Z = (x-μ) / (σ-√n)

= (34.25-35) / (0.05-√100)

= -0.75 / -9.95

= 0.075

Probability (p) value when (σ) = 0.05, and its meaning

p-value = P(Z>0.075) = 0.0001

The probability of getting a sample whose mean is 34.25 or more when H0 is true is 0.0001.

Comparing the p – value to alpha

For a large test statistic, the critical value is large and its p-value is small than even the alpha value.A rejection is made if test statistics is found in the rejection region.

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Nucor Primary And Support Activities

Nucor Primary And Support Activities

Nucor Primary And Support Activities

Introduction

Nucor is a large manufacturing company in United States that deals with manufacturing of steel. It has remained to be a profitable company even though it is among the very cynical industries. It enjoys the success due to several reasons which include; quality, aggressive pursuit in technical excellence and innovation, productivity and employee relations. This paper will focus on the primary and secondary activities that help Nucor steel manufacturers to achieve low cost strategy.

Primary activities

The company makes use of the following primary activities (Ukessays, 2013).

Inbound Logistics- This process is changing because after acquiring DJJ, the company could get ways of improving the systems available currently. The implementation of the right on time systems may lead to elimination of the cost of storing scrap metal. This is able to make the inbound logistics for Nucor Company be superior in competition.

Outbound Logistics- After the processing process is done on the goods, they are taken to buyers with no freight equalizing. The buyers who are closer to the plant are able to obtain the goods via just in time system. The company and the buyers have an electronic link which creates a connection that benefits the system.

Operations- The sector of operations in chain of value is very important in the processing industry. The company tries to improve the existing techniques with the aim of increasing the efficiency of the company. The organization capacity is far from other leading companies. However, it has really advanced in technology hence is being sought after by many buyers (Ukessays, 2013).

Support Activities

Firm Infrastructure- Since the beginning of the company the activities have been taking place within the division. This is as a result of the improved growth of the company. Nowadays, the activities have been centralized.

Procurement- Initially, it was very difficult and costly to procure raw materials. Outside United States, the clients used to pay more for the scrap steel. This was reviewed after DJJ was purchased.

Technology Development- the Company has always found the need to improve the current processes. It has continued to improve the merger and acquisitions with the aim of expanding the business.

Nucor value to customers

The company has been able to invest heavily on their customers. This is because they need them to buy their products so as to make more profits (Nucor, 2013). The company has been able to promote good customer services. This is done by transporting their products to their customers as an after sale service.

They are also able to use modern equipment. They have a well developed mini mill technology which has increased the utilization capacity and produces goods of high quality (Nucor, 2013). The advanced technology keeps the competitors away as they have to develop the technologies first before competing. The company has constantly been innovating its products. It is believed to be the first company to use electric arc furnace for melting the scrap metals. This makes the customers go for its products without hesitations.

Decision making is local instead of the headquarter level. The company does not believe in hierarchy levels. They promote equality for all (Nucor, 2013). This makes the team mates to be close to managers hence improving customer service. The managers however have authority in every plant. The management believes in pain sharing so that if something goes wrong, the manager at that level is in a position to solve the situation before it worsens.

In conclusion, the company aims at taking good care of the customer and therefore takes care for everyone. This makes the Nucor Company be the most sought after in the world.

References

Nucor. (2013) Culture. Nucor.com. Retrieved on 25th Sept 2013 from http://www.nucor.com/story/chapter4/Uke essays.com. (2013). Financial study of the Nucor Company. Uk essays.com. Retrieved on 25th Sept 2013 from http://www.ukessays.com/essays/economics/financial-study-of-the-nucor-corporation-economics-essay.php

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Nuclear Weapons and Global Peace

Nuclear Weapons and Global Peace

Nuclear Weapons and Global Peace

Name

Course

Tutor’s Name

Date

Nuclear Weapons and Global Peace

When the United States dropped two atomic bombs over the two Japanese towns of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, World War II gradually came to an end. But shortly afterwards, the world entered into a cold war, a period of great tensions as two sides (NATO and Warsaw Pact) engaged in an arms race. The situation was so tense that analysts came with a term Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), to refer to a situation whereby the two protagonists (Soviet Union led by Russia and the United States) will simultaneous strike each other with nuclear weapons and wipe themselves out of the planet (Gaddis, 1982). Eventually the two sides had to step away from the brink of a major catastrophe.

As to whether the presence of more nuclear weapons can guaranteed continued world peace and stability is a matter of conjecture. On one side it has been argued that more nuclear weapons has a deterrent effect on nations (Oupblog, 2009), so that in case of a conflict, countries will always pull back from the brink by the mere thought that war will escalate to nuclear war. The consequences of nuclear war are too grave that anybody will not dare use them.

It can also be argued that, nuclear weapons cannot sustain the peace we have all along known. Countries such as Iran look at such weapons as leveling the ground against states that are out to bully them, casting doubts as to whether sobriety can prevail when it faced with obvious threat of an attack. It should also not be forgotten that terrorist elements such as Al Qaeda, have proved that they derived great delight from mass killings of innocent civilians (Oupblog, 2009, and Greenpeace, n.d.). The September 11 attacks in the United States are clear example of their thinking. One wonders what the world will look like should they access either the technology or the nuclear war heads.

In the current dispensations, and with the reality of terrorism, more nuclear weapons simply mean less control and easy access to terrorists, turning them into killing devices.

References

Gaddis, J. L.(1982). Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Post-war American

National Security. New York: Oxford University Press.

Greenpeace,(n. d). Moving to a nuclear weapons-free world. Retrieved October 4, 2013, from

http://www.greenpeace.org.uk/peace/moving-nuclear-weapons-free-world

Oupblog, (2009, March, 26). Do nuclear weapons make the world a safer place?

Message posted to http://blog.oup.com/2009/03/nuclear-weapons/

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Nuclear Bombs

Nuclear Bombs

Nuclear Bombs

Indeed, while nuclear weapons have only been used once during times of war, dropped in Japan in August 1945, killing over 215,000 innocent people, there are a greater number of countries acquiring nuclear capabilities in the 21st Century making them more of a threat than ever before. Nuclear weapons are just one of many weapons of mass destruction that threaten innocent citizens worldwide (“World Mysteries” 1),

There are weapons of mass destruction other than the different kinds of nuclear warheads. Anthrax was a threat to our country not more than one year ago, and Smallpox is a current threat talked about quite often. Only a few countries possess Anthrax, but Iraq, North Korea, Russia, France, and the United States all possess Smallpox. The International Terrorist Group “al Qaida” is also thought to possess the deadly disease according to the State Department (Staff A6). An outbreak of Smallpox would bring the disease back from over 25 years of eradication, and could cause the death of thousands of people (McEnery B1).

Nuclear weapons pose a great threat to the world, by not only third-world countries, but also terrorist organizations using “Dirty Bombs”. Dirty bombs are conventional explosives, however encased by nuclear material such as Uranium or Plutonium. In addition to atomic bombs, and dirty bombs, there are over seventy-five other different variants of nuclear weapons, creating a constant threat to countries all around the world, including the United States of America.

There are over seventy-five top-secret presidential nuclear bunkers in which the President and some select few can go to during and after a nuclear war (“50 Facts” 3). On September 11, 2001, George W. Bush and others went to one of these facilities in Offutt Air Force Base in Omaha, Nebraska (Gibbs 33). Also until 1988, there was over $2,000,000,000 stored by the Federal Reserve in a facility for use after a nuclear war (“50 Facts” 3). There are many other precautions the United States Government takes to protect the country from nuclear war.

The history of nuclear warfare goes back hundreds of years. Uranium was discovered in 1789 by Martin Klaproth in the mineral pitchblende, and it was named after the planet Uranus. Pitchblende was only known about eight year’s prior to the discovery of Uranium. Uranium has a high density. The heaviest of all naturally occurring elements; Uranium is 18.7 times as dense as water, making it a common material in the keels of yachts and as counterweights in aircraft rudders and elevators. Also, it is great for radiation or heat shielding, as its melting point is 1132 degrees Celsius (“WNA: What is Uranium?” 1).

Atomic Bombs work as fission, where particles, or nuclei, are split exerting massive amounts of energy. This force expelled violently and explosively, is the atomic bomb, from the power that harnesses the atom. Atomic bombs are made up of one of the most unstable elements on the current periodic table, Uranium-235. Uranium’s atoms are unusually large; therefore, it is hard to hold them together. Plutonium-239 is also one of the materials used in making atomic weapons, however not harnessing the fission of Uranium; it acts as a catalyst to an even greater reaction (“World Mysteries” 2).

The concept of radioactivity has barely been around for 100 years. Discovered by Antoine Henri Becquerel in 1896, it was quickly studied by the scientific community. Albert Einstein formulated his “Theory of Relativity” in 1905, stating if mass could be transformed into energy, the energy liberated would be massive. Einstein’s theory would be proved thirty-three years later by Otto Hahn, along with his partner Fritz Strassman (“World Mysteries” 2).

It wasn’t until August 1942 when the United States established the Manhattan Project, when it developed, constructed, and tested the world’s first atomic bomb. Many prominent American scientists, associated with the United States Army, and their engineers, headed the project. It was three years later, July 16, 1945, when the first atomic bomb was tested in Alamogordo, New Mexico, using it less than one month later against Japan during World War II (“World Mysteries” 3).

There was tremendous competition in the race to develop nuclear weapons. The United States was far ahead of their competition, beating out the Soviets by over four years, when they tested their first test, August 29, 1949 (“World Mysteries” 3)?

Today both the Unites States and Russia have just about the same amount of active nuclear warheads, around 10,000. There are nuclear-arms treaties between the two superpowers, attempting to erase nuclear weapons from the weapon stockpile of countries worldwide. So many countries, and now terrorist organizations, now or soon will have nuclear weapons; some believe it could bring our world to an end. But once a country abolishes the weapons, their national security would be put at risk (“Nuclear Powers” 1).

Nuclear bombs are not the only form of weapons of mass destruction. There are various other methods, such as viruses, diseases, bacteria, etc. Actually, one of the greatest threats to the United States currently is the deadly smallpox virus. In preparation for an attack, the United States government is taking drastic action by vaccinating medical personnel in case of such an attack, who in turn would vaccinate the general public and by ensuring a stock of vaccinations is available (McEnery B1).

Nuclear bombs are not the only kind of nuclear weapons; the biggest threat comes from terrorists, and their “dirty bombs”. Dirty Bombs are not dropped out of an airplane; they are not launched from a missile site. They are conventional bombs; such as those used in car bombings, bus bombings, etc. The difference between conventional bombs, and dirty bombs is that at the core of dirty bombs is compacted radioactive nuclear material, which expands quickly after the conventional TNT explosion (“NRC: Fact Sheet” 1).

If a dirty bomb were to go off in Times Square, New York, the explosion would kill less than ten people, however it would kill or injure thousands more due to radiation exposure. There are several ways nuclear material can be acquired; there are over 21,000 licensed organizations in the United States legally using radioactive or nuclear material for medical, academic, research, or industrial purposes (“NRC: Fact Sheet” 1).

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stated that they receive on average 300 reports of lost or stolen radioactive materials per year that could be used to build a dirty bomb. Due to the tragic events of September 11, the NRC is taking greater steps to safeguard higher-risk nuclear devices against terrorists. However, terrorists are not the only people attempting to obtain nuclear weapons (“NRC: Fact Sheet” 1).

There are countries attempting to obtain full nuclear warheads for use against other countries, and in one case against it’s own people. Iran, North Korea, Iraq, India, Pakistan, and Israel all have nuclear warheads. India, Pakistan, and Israel are commonly called the “de facto” states, while India and Pakistan conduct nuclear tests, Israel is widely assumed to have nuclear weapons of their own, despite not declaring any. Iran and Iraq both posses nuclear material and may be close to developing nuclear warheads (“Declared Nuclear Powers” 1).

Nuclear waste from nuclear power is another possible threat for nuclear bomb fuel. The most common nuclear element exerted as a waste product from Nuclear Power Plants is being tested for use in an atomic bomb, both for government and terrorist use. Since it is the most readily available radioactive element, there are threats that quantities may be stolen for terrorist use, providing radioactive material for both weapons making, and research (Vergano 1).

Weapons scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico are studying the energy expelled when two halves of a neptunium sphere gets closer together over a four-day period. Americium, another nuclear waste product, was investigated by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1999, along with neptunium. The IAEA found it could also serve as a weapons material, however it was viewed as less of a threat (Vergano 1).

While the detonation of a nuclear weapon anywhere would cause extensive damage, its power would depend on the altitude at which it explodes- high in the air, or at ground level. It also on whether it was detonated in an urban setting, such as a major city, or in the open country (“Effects of a Nuclear Bomb” 1).

Nuclear explosions give off a great pulse of radiation, leaving everything intensely radioactive. The air-burst given off from the explosion would completely vaporize most everything within the blast radius, rising into a giant fireball. Not only would immediate effects obliterate the affected area, but also electricity, communications, water, and other city utilities would be destroyed. Rescue services would be impaired from responding due to the severe damage to the immediate vicinity, and the inaccessible roads. Hospitals and medical personnel would be overloaded, due to the massive number of injured requiring medical attention (“Effects of a Nuclear Bomb” 4).

The effects to a major U.S. city of between one and two million people, by a one-megaton bomb would be devastating. One third of its population, would be killed immediately, another third would be seriously injured, while the remaining third would go with little or no injury. A whole year’s supply of blood would instantly be needed for transfusions, with new patients covering one third of all hospital beds in North America (“Effects of a Nuclear Bomb” 5).

Nuclear power plants use the neutrons surrounded by neutron-absorbing material to limit the chain reaction process in a controlled “slow burn,” instead of an explosion. The energy omitted by nuclear fission is used to heat water into steam, which in turn rotates a generator. There are over 107 nuclear power plants in the United States providing power to the country every day. Over 16% of the world’s electricity is from nuclear reactors powered by Uranium, all together generating enough power to provide five times the world’s most populated country, India (“WNA:What is Uranium?” 3).

Plutonium, Uranium, and other nuclear materials are often considered “Radioactive,” but what does radioactive mean? Radioactive materials atoms are continuously “falling apart,” resulting in such intense extra energy in the form of leftover neutrons that it damages human cells. In spite of this, the energy that is emitted is not an adequate amount of energy to create a nuclear explosion. The force of the Trinitrotoluene, or TNT, squashes the radioactive element to its ‘critical mass’, making it so dense that every escaping neutron bumps into another atom creating large explosions; this describes ‘nuclear fission’ (“Nuclear Bombs” 1).

When the atoms bump into each other, other nucleuses break down as well, whether it was ready to or not, releasing even more energy, and more neutrons. Those newly released neutrons are bumping into and breaking up more nuclei, quickly triggering a chain reaction. Within a fraction of a second, trillions of neutrons release energy, creating the massive explosion associated with a nuclear bomb (“Nuclear Bombs” 2).

Uranium is all around us in nature, often seen in rocks in two to four parts per million. It is also commonly found in seawater in small concentrations, which could be mined from seawater if demand rose high enough (“WNA: What is Uranium?” 1).

The world’s foremost miners of uranium in order are Australia, Kazakhstan, Canada, South Africa, Namibia, Brazil, Russia, and the United States of America. There are other smaller deposits that could be mined when deemed necessary as well. Uranium is only sold from these countries to countries who have signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, and who allow international inspectors to verify it is being used for peaceful purposes only.

Peaceful purposes for uranium include use of radioisotopes in medicine, emitting gamma radiation treating illnesses, cancer, sterilizing syringes, and other medical equipment as well. Smoke detectors also often contain radioisotopes derived from plutonium. Over 200 ships use nuclear reactors for power, submarines, aircraft carriers, icebreakers, and others enabling them to stay at sea for long periods of time without refueling (“WNA: What is Uranium?” 2).

Due to the disarmament agreements world wide, methods have been developed to dilute military uranium for use in peaceful purposes. Radioisotopes from such methods are currently being used in the preservation of food, crops, and livestock. Today’s uses for uranium are expanding to the thought of nuclear powered aircraft, and much more. Nuclear bombs are a threat that is never going to be erased, however, the power coming from radioactive elements for peaceful purposes is something that we cannot live without (“WNC: What is Uranium? 2).

Nuclear research has benefited mankind in many ways. But today, the nuclear industry faces huge, very complex issues. The future will depend on the advanced engineering and scientific research. The concept of the atom has existed for many centuries, but we only recently began to understand the enormous power contained in these tiny molecules. This power has been put to use for peaceful purposes, however it still posses the threat Albert Einstein stated in 1939 to the American President “It is possible to set up nuclear chain reactions in a large mass of uranium creating a new phenomenon in bombs” (“World Mysteries” 1).

Bibliography:

Works Cited

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How Nuclear Weapons Work. 6 Nov. 2002 .Hydrogen Bombs. 6 Nov. 2002 .Landau, Elaine. The New Nuclear Reality. Brookfield: Twenty-First Century Books, 2000.

Levi, Michael, and Henry Kelly. “Weapons of Mass Disruption.” Scientific American Nov. 2002: 76.

McEnery, Regina. “Threat of Smallpox hunts us.” The Plain Dealer [Cleveland, Ohio] 6 Nov. 2002: B1+.

NRC:Fact Sheet on Dirty Bombs. 11 Nov. 2002 .Nuclear Bombs….How They Work. 5 Nov. 2002 .Nuclear Fusion. 5 Nov. 2002 .“Proliferation.” National Review 11 Nov. 2002: 16.

“Resolution, at last, from Security Council.” Economist 9 Nov. 2002: 14.

Smallpox. 6 Nov. 2002 .Squitieri, Tom. “Inspectors have plan for flushing out illicit weapons.” USA Today 12 Nov. 2002: 1.

Staff. “U.S. Expresses fear of Smallpox.” The Plain Dealer [Cleveland, Ohio] 6 Nov. 2002: A6.

U.S. Nuclear Power Plants 6 December 2002

Vergano, Dan. “Common Nuclear Waste Element could be bomb threat.” USA Today 21 Oct. 2002: D6.

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