Nutrition and Health

Nutrition and Health

Nutrition and Health




Instructor’s name:


Nutrition and Health

For the Drive-Thru Diet Assignment, you are to select a fast-food chain of your choice, go to the chain’s website, and plan two luncheon meals.

My healthy meal

Fruit and Maple Oatmeal

Artisan Grilled Chicken Sandwich

Fruit ‘n Yogurt Parfait

Iced Nonfat Caramel Mocha

My unhealthy meal

Buttermilk Crispy Chicken Sandwich

Large Fries

McFlurry with M&M’s

Chocolate Shake

My fast-food choice is McDonald’s. McDonald’s started its operation in 1954 in California, United States, and was found by Richard and Maurice McDonald. Its headquarters are in Chicago and Illinois. McDonald’s is arguably the leading fast-food restaurant globally, not to mention a prominent foodservice retailer. More than 65 million customers across various parts of the world (119 countries) receive McDonald’s products and services based on the company’s 2018 report. Also, over 2 million people directly work for that chain of restaurants. Some of the essential products the brand is recognized with are burgers, French fries, desserts, beverages, soft drinks, and chicken products. The company is trying to keep with the dynamics of health and nutrition by continually reviewing their menus. Menu reviews help make adjustments on food items that are subject to causing health problems such as obesity, some cancers, diabetes, high blood pressure, and other diseases.

My healthy meal menu

Fruit and Maple Oatmeal

It takes care of various individuals ranging from those who use brown sugar, dried cranberries, a splash of cream to fresh diced apples. It is a standardized meal with 310 calories, 4g fat, 62g carbohydrates, and 6g proteins.

Artisan Grilled Chicken Sandwich

It is a delicious sandwich with no fear for health compromise; more importantly, it is up to satisfy one’s cravings. The quantity of calories is 380, 6g fat, 45g carbohydrates, and 36g protein.

Fruit ‘N Yogurt Parfait

It is a sweet dessert with no chances of feeling guilt. The Fruit ‘N Yoghurt Parfait has a low concentration of fats and is nourished with fresh strawberries, granola, and blueberries; ensure your dessert is sweet, and your treat is not less than extraordinary. As such, it has 150 calories, 2g fat, 30g carbs, and 4g protein.

Iced Nonfat Caramel Mocha

For those who like sweet drinks, an iced caramel mocha is arguably the best bet. It has nonfat milk with 26g sugar and 200 calories.

My unhealthy meal menu

Buttermilk Crispy Chicken Sandwich

Crispy is a word often used to refer to “breaded with sugar and fried in fat.” The meal is made with fattening buttermilk, not to mention being topped with a substantial amount of mayo dressing. It makes this type of sandwich to contain more fat than a few slices of cheese pizza. The calories’ content is a massive 600, 29g fat, 980 mg sodium, 58g carbohydrates, 2g fiber, 9g sugar, and 27 g protein.

Large Fries

Fries are one of the most fast-food items that people often buy. Consuming a significant quantity of fries will set back close to 500 calories than you would if you decide to eat a double cheeseburger. As such, it has 490 calories, 23 g fat, 400 mg sodium, 66 g carbohydrates, and 7g proteins.

McFlurry with M&M’s

It is an iconic dessert with a sweetened cream base and sugar. The dissert would fail to meet the required FDA set standards of sugar content (50 grams) as it has a whopping 86 grams of sugar. Additionally, it has 640 calories, 21 g fat, 200 mg sodium, 96 g carbohydrates, and 13 g protein.

Chocolate Shake

It has more calories than a double cheeseburger and contains sugar contents as seven glazed Krispy Kreme donuts would. Consuming a significant quantity will see one gulp down a massive 850 calories and 120 grams of sugar. On average, this food item has 530 calories, 15 g fat, 260 mg sodium, 87 g carbohydrates, 12 g proteins.

In conclusion, one of the things that caught my attention in my unhealthy choice of meal was the substantial amount of things like calories, fat, sugar, and carbohydrates present in people’s food items. In my healthy food choice, the amounts of content concentration were significantly low.

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Nutrition and Diet Research Proposal

Nutrition and Diet Research Proposal

Nutrition and Diet Research Proposal


Institution affiliation

The college student’s nutrition and diet practices are affected by various factors, which is the problem we are trying to ascertain in this study. The participants of this study are 121 students of ages between 18-24, both male and female, who will be identified after receiving an email. The methods of study will be after feeling a questionnaire that will be available and enabled by a survey monkey. Unfortunately, the method of study is liable to various biases since the survey monkey requires that one can access the internet, which might be an issue for some students, and offers no guarantee that all participants will be students.

The study will examine the Nutrition and Diets for College Students in the United States. Increased cases of obesity and overweight have been reported and observed mainly among adolescents and young adults. The most recent data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System confirmed that a greater percentage of the 18-24-year-olds are obese and overweight. The life of college students is characterized by tremendous changes; the now young adults are no longer under the strict care of their parents or guardians, and they have to make responsible choices that affect their day-to-day lives, and nutrition is a core component. Studies report that most college students engage in risky health behaviors, which include unhealthy eating habits that get worse as the college years’ progress. College students need to develop healthy eating habits that will translate to better health and attainment of optimal body function.

The central purpose of this study is to critically examine the diets and the nutrition that college students have. Reviewed studies have demonstrated that there is a need to examine the nutritional requirements of college students, their eating habits, knowledge of diet and nutrition, healthy behaviors, management of their weight as well education on diet and nutrition. Based on the discussion, the following hypotheses were proposed.

H1: The importance of eating healthy will be positively influenced by individual social demographics, food-environ perceptions, and the objective food environment.

H2: Moderators also positively influence the dietary outcome in students.

H3: The environment influences the dietary and nutritional outcomes in students.

The study variables will include Independent and Dependent variables. The Independent variables will be diet, nutrition, states, and the cities. Independent variables can be discussed as controlled inputs, while the dependent variables represent the outcome resulting from the inputs. In the study, the dependent variables include; College student, age, and sex. The individual-level covariates include the individual socio-demographics, which may be defined as age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, income, and household cohabitants. The independent measures will be subjected under a 7-point bipolar scale. The questions for the variables will be generated from SG Sapp and HH Jensen’s (2012) research study. The diet variable will be measured using three designed questions (was your diet in the last one week higher or lower in nutrition value? How healthy have your food choices been in the past two weeks? In the period of the last two weeks, how often have you made healthy food choices?) The importance of having a healthy diet will be measured with the following questions. The questions will be framed as to how is it important for you to have a meal rich in nutrition? Also, how does nutrition influence how you shop for your food?

The dependent variables were measured using the following questions does being in college influence your healthy food choices? The variable on gender will be covered when the participants tick whether they are male or female on the questionnaire. The demographic characteristics section in the questionnaire will majorly measure the dependent variables. Discriminant validity analysis will be conducted to test the correlation of the measurements and concepts in question as well as the observation of Pearson correlation between independent variables. In addition, a test to ascertain for biases as information is being obtained from a single group of students will be conducted the utilization of the measure or coding scheme is necessary as it enables the research to give a numeral value to the variables making the research efficient and effective. The study went by the research ethics and codes and ensured no research ethics principle was compromised, especially when dealing with the population and for the integrity of the study.

Being in college life is hard; one is required to juggle between a part-time job and school, and getting to look at what one eats may be difficult. Diet is an important part of our life. We are often taught that we are what we eat. The American Heart Association recommends that a proper diet should consist mostly of unprocessed plant foods, with emphasis on a wide range of whole grains, legumes, non-starchy vegetables, and fruits. A healthy diet is considered to be low in energy density, which may protect weight gain and associated diseases. Good nutrition, however, is not all about weight loss. Inadequate nutrition has been known to affect a student’s performance because nutrition is of great essence in the development of the brain (Powell, 2019). Getting to eat a nutritious diet is not as easy as it requires time to prepare, which most college students point out they do not have. There several other factors that contribute to unhealthy nutrition among college students, including stress, alcohol, and lack of exercise.

Firstly, joining college is a transition that is reported to pose some challenges to the students, especially in preparing and purchasing meals and keeping up with eating schedules. According to Kelly et al. (2013), various factors are said to affect the students from achieving healthy eating habits, and they include; the cost of foods, lack of peer support, and lack of access to healthy foods. Also, the academic challenges do not make the situation better and result in the student’s consumption being mostly high on sugar and fat, which lacks the required nutrients. To ascertain the way forward about the practice and research materials on nutrition among college students, 14 articles were selected among those published in 10 years from January 2001 – June 2011. From the review of the materials, it was concluded that the change in the behavior and pattern of healthy eating among students is related to personal, environmental, and behavior factors. Also, all these studies related to the student’s nutrition habits with a few of them focusing on sleep and exercise, the studies reflected some changes in the dietary intake of the children while some did not; the changes depicted were minimal. Also, only two had a long-term follow-up of the outcome wit ranged between 3-6 months, and the conclusions from the studies asserted that education and self-regulation strategies promoted better healthy eating. The lack of conclusive results and the need for further research on the topic was based on the fact that the study lacked follow up and lack of clarification on whether the sample population was selected out of convenience or power analyses. The sample population also was composed of white females; hence the issue of generalization was missing, and they were a possibility of bias in the intake of meals.

According to research by Auburn University, 95% of college students do not eat the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables (Gropper, 2012). Eating being a tedious process, most college students cannot cook sand prefer eating take-outs, yet they do not participate in physical activities. Eating disorders, especially obesity, are common among college students, and this is attributed to changes in eating habits, lifestyle changes, and stress. In the United States, statistics indicate that obesity among students has risen drastically. The most recent figures from the National Centre for Health Statistics indicate that a third of U.S. adults 20years and above are suffering from obesity. The numbers are quite high because a third of the population is roughly 100million individuals. The increase in cuts across the entire population, meaning obesity cases in young adults and children, is on the rise as well (Fruh, 2014).

According to Alshahrani & Chandramohan (2017), obesity is a major problem across the world and is the extensive and abnormal fat accumulation in the tissues; unfortunately, it has rapidly increased among both developed and developing countries and is the fifth leading cause of death. A healthy diet helps prevent obesity, which exposes people to hypertension, certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes. According to a study conducted by the World Health organization in 2005, among the 400 million people with obesity, more women and men accounted for the highest number. Additionally, a study was conducted on the eating habits and obesity among Saudi Arabia’s college students’ population this was after the country experienced fast socio-cultural changes attributed to the growing economy of the Arabian Gulf region. The study was conducted on the males, and it was concluded that 15.7% of the students were obese while 21.8% were overweight, and 55.2% of total body fat exceeded the normal limits. Also, the common eating habits that were prevalent among the college students was that most had only two meals in a day including breakfast, most had dinners with their families, and they frequently ate fried food and snacks. Unfortunately, students rarely consumed fruits and vegetables. From the study, it was concluded while research suggests that most women and men have obesity, this was not the case in Saudi Arabia since the male population rates were higher (Al-Rethaiaa et al., 2010). The study concluded that both the students and families needed to be made aware of the adverse effects of being obese and overweight to reduce the adverse effects of the condition.

Most studies conducted have portrayed that most students enjoy taking foods with high calories and fats compared to those with fruit and vegetables daily. From a study conducted by the American College Health Association, it was concluded that only 7.3% of students ate more than five meals that had vegetables and fruits with the transition to college playing a role in this dietary behavior. Various factors explained with these dietary changes; the places where the students lived was one factor with most students who lived off-campus most meals had proteins with the ratio of the cholesterol compared to lipoprotein being higher than those who resided in campus (Gerend, 2009). Also, gender played a role where female students consumed more fatty foods than males; however, the vegetable and fruits between the two was relatively similar. Also, the male students who lived off-campus took most protein meals than those residing in the campus; this was the case with the females where those residing off-campus meals had high lipoproteins than those on the campus. Most females too avoided most meals because of ethical, weight, and health reasons more than the female population who were also motivated by weight, pleasure, convenience, and price than males (Deshpande et al., 2009).

According to Yahia et al. (2016), Cardiovascular disease has been termed in the United States as the leading cause of death since, in every year, 1 of 4 deaths reported of the American adults are as a result of the illnesses. The disease is made severe by the intake of high fats and cholesterol; a study was conducted among college students to ascertain whether the reduced unhealthy fats consumption was from having nutrition knowledge. The study was conducted among 231 students who were recruited in the spring of 2012, and they all had a mean age of 20 years, they filled in a questionnaire on their daily fat consumption, nutrition knowledge, and demographics. Also, their waist height and weight were measures, and the information analysis was undertaken using ANOVA, students t-tests, and chi-square. From the study, it was concluded that female students that male had higher knowledge of nutrition, which was negatively associated with the intake of cholesterol and fat. The study also inferences that students who consumed less unhealthy cholesterol had more nutrition knowledge; the study emphasizes the importance of nutrition education to promote healthy eating among the students.

Moreover, research was undertaken to fill in the gap and provide insight into whether access to nutrition knowledge would lead to better behavior about healthy eating. To ascertain the effects of this information, a study was done among 200 college students and was a survey on the internet and required not only that students be freshmen but also they are taking the university meal plan. From the study, it was concluded that people’s access to information in nutrition positively impacted the type of foods the students took since those who had the most knowledge consumed the recommended amounts of both fruits and dairy products, unlike those with less information (Kolodinsky et al., 2007).

Additionally, college students are not able to meet the set exercise and nutrition guidelines that are rest in place to reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases, which include earing vegetables and fruits and taking low fatty products. To ascertain the barriers that prevent the meeting of the guidelines, a study among 471 college students that had been picked using the stratified random sample was conducted. From the study, it was concluded that most college students miss breakfast, and the statistics have no disparity between males and females; about 635 of the students consume snacks once or twice a day with male snacking because of partying while the females for emotional reasons. Also, the male student’s intake of alcohol and soda is higher than that of women and their intake too of fat products and canned foods. The reasons for the poor eating habits were attributed to lack of time by 40%, taste preferences by 15%, lack of money by 22%, and other reasons by 25% of the students; the other reasons were convenience and motivation (Silliman et al., 2004).

According to Yu & Tan (2016), various college students suffer from various addiction to certain foods and some disordered eating behaviors. To ascertain exactly how much the student was affected by these behaviors, a study was conducted that involved 961 college students aged between 18-25 were recruited through consenting to an email sent. The students selected were classified into three groups nutrition majors, non-nutrition health majors, and other majors. From the study, it was concluded that many students engaged in disordered eating behaviors, with 10% of the behavior being of concern; the number had no disparity among the groups. Also, 10.3% of the students had food addiction tendencies across the three groups. To ensure that the disorders among the college student reduced according to the study suggest that various measures should be put into place, encouraging obese students to lose weight, screening and increasing eating disorder awareness, and promotion of healthy habits.

This section entails the research methodologies that will be utilized to achieve the objectives of the study. It also gives an in-depth explanation of the population that the research is targeting. The sampling of the participants is illustrated together with the techniques to be used in data collection and management.

The research will utilize a cross-sectional design model of study. A cross-sectional design model is one of the most common and relatively easy to use study designs. It involves an examination of data from a population at one specific point in time. The entire population can be examined or a target group from the population chosen to answer the question of the research being conducted. This design is suitable for the collection of qualitative and quantitative data, both of which will be utilized throughout the research.

The cross-sectional study design is preferred for this study because of the many advantages it has. The advantages include; relatively cheap, collected data that can be used for various types of research and can be used to validate or invalidate assumptions. Additionally, the design can collect a wide range of data within a short period as well as analyze the cause-effect relationships in the study population.

Research data will be obtained from willing college students, who are the respondents. The participants include both male and female students aged between 18 and 24 years. This range represents students who are grading from the adolescence stage to young adulthood and are currently enrolled in college. The research will exclude students with limited college experience, which includes those in the first year of their studies and those taking short courses. The research will also prohibit the participation of students pursuing nutrition disciplines or any other related course, and this is because the students might have a broader knowledge regarding healthy eating habits, thus influence the results. In this regard, only students from other disciplines will participate in the research.

The research will employ a probability sampling technique to select participants. The technique allows for a sample to be chosen randomly from the population of the study. The sample is then used as a representation of the rest of the population. The greatest strength of using this technique is that everyone in the population has an equal chance of being selected, this will give the researcher a chance of obtaining a sample that truly represents the population, thus highly reliable information. The limitation of this technique is that it is relatively costlier and time-consuming than non-probability sampling methods. However, the researcher will incur the cost and time at the expense of reliable information.

Monetary compensation of $10 will be given to the participants to appreciate them for agreeing to take part in the research. However, the researcher recognizes this may attract the non-students whose interest will be the money, thus results in bias. To address this limitation, the researcher will work concurrently with the university administration in the verification of the eligible participants. An email will be sent to the eligible participants, with a link to fill an online questionnaire. The aim of the study will be included in the email to enlighten the participants on what it is about and why it is essential for them to participate.

College database will be used to ensure the participants from different demographic aspects and courses of study are selected to avoid bias. The aspects include age, gender, and ethnicity. U.S.A boasts several ethnic groups such as White-Americans, African-Americans, Hispanic, and Latino Americans; this is in addition to the many races, all of which influence nutrition habits. The process will result in a final appropriate sample constituting 121 college students who will take part in the research.

Data collection will be done using a questionnaire which will be developed after a thorough literature review is conducted. Nutritional knowledge and a trawl of relevant information obtained from peer-reviewed literature will help in generating an initial pool of questionnaire items. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) will be utilized to identify the predominant items and to selectively minimize the numbers to a manageable figure of 25 items in the eventual questionnaire. The items will be selected in a manner not to offend the respondents. The questionnaire will be tested and reviewed for validation by the peers, and this will be to ensure it is designed to measure the intended values. It will then be utilized as a data collection tool in which the participants will be required to fill in their responses.

The questionnaire mainly consists of two sections, one which requires demographic information and the second section, which focuses on the topic of study. The demographics will aim at obtaining information on the specifics of the participants and how they are likely to influence their diet. The subsequent statements in the second section will be asked in a bid to obtain information regarding the eating habits of the college students and their level of knowledge on the nutritional requirements for health.

The study will consist of five demographic and twenty survey statements. The five demographic questions will be age, gender, and ethnicity, area of residence, and socioeconomic status of the participants. Age is a critical demographic question that will determine whether the participant if fit for the target audience or not, and this will be done in a multiple-choice format using an age range structure for each participant to answer. The researcher acknowledges that some participants are usually uncomfortable to reveal their exact age, and therefore the age range structure will protect their personal information while responding.

Gender is one of the most indispensable tools while carrying out this research and appreciating the fact that different genders tend to have different nutritional habits, for instance, the female gender is likely to select cautiously on what to eat due to reasons to do with their body shapes and appearance. Gender questions will be phrased in a way to give the respondent more flexibility while answering so that they don’t feel forced to relay sensitive information.

Ethnicity though a sensitive topic, will give a clearer picture of the participants’ cultural backgrounds. U.S.A has a population of several ethnic groups, and this is likely to influence their nutritional habits since each has different traditions, beliefs, and practices. A multiple answer phrase will be used to obtain this information with a list of all the ethnic groups found in the country.

The area of residence is a question that will enable the researcher to understand fully how the environment influences the dietary behavior of the students. Students living off-campus or with their parents are likely to have different nutritional and dietary habits from those staying on their own at college. The reason for this is because students within the campus are likely to eat from the college cafeteria or take-outs foods, while those living in their homes eat food cooked at home. The socioeconomic status of the participants is essential in this study, as it indicates the social standing and class of the individual; it will determine whether the class of an individual in terms of finances influences their diet in terms of what food they can afford. The question will be phrased in a multiple-choice form in which the participants chose their socioeconomic classes, which are low, middle, or upper.

The researcher will ensure flexibility among the participants by including the option of “I prefer not to say.” this will ensure the participants don’t feel pressured to disseminate information they consider sensitive. The second section of the questionnaire will constitute two parts. The first part, which comprises questions 1-12, will be based on the general eating habits of the participants and the foods they consume. These survey statements will make use of the frequency scale Never (1), rarely (2), every day (3), and more than once a day (4), for instance, how frequently do you eat fruits? Do you engage in any sporting activities?

The second part of this section, questions 13-20, will address the level of knowledge on nutrition and the factors that influence the nutrition and diet of college students. Nutritional statements will be presented, and the respondents will be required to evaluate it by giving a qualitative value, with a level of agreement or disagreement. An agreement scale will be utilized in this instance and will include a seven-level item. The items are; strongly agree, somehow agree, agree, disagree, somehow disagree, strongly disagree, and neither agree nor disagree for a neutral response. An example of a question in this part is; “low fruit and vegetable consumption is an unhealthy eating habit.”

The questions for the variables will be generated from SG Sapp and HH Jensen’s (2012) research study. The diet variable will be measured using three designed questions (was your diet in the last one week higher or lower in nutrition value? How healthy have your food choices been in the past two weeks? In the period of the last two weeks, how often have you made healthy food choices?) The importance of having a healthy diet will be measured with the following questions. The questions will be framed as to how is it important for you to have a meal rich in nutrition? Also, how does nutrition influence how you shop for your food?

Permission to survey the college will be obtained from the college authority, and the participants will be free to partake in the study before or after their meals based on their preference. An informed consent form will be attached to the questionnaire. It will provide adequate information on the subject of study, allowing the respondents to choose whether to participate or not. The options of “I consent” and “I do not Consent” will be provided for the respondent to select before proceeding to fill the questionnaire.

The informed consent form will comprise the following criteria information, the title of the study, followed by a general statement about the study, and how the respondent was selected. The name of the researcher will then be included, followed by background information explaining the research question in brief. A procedure oh how the participant will be required to participate is then illustrated. The risks and benefits of being in the study will be outlined by the researcher. The compensation plan will follow with the compensation amount and how the money will be disbursed to the respondent. Finally, the confidentiality statement by the researcher explaining to the correspondents who will access the information provided, how it will be used, and for how long and the last part will be for the respondent acceptance purpose. The statements used will address the respondents using the second-person pronoun “you.” For instance, “you are free to withdraw from this study at any time.”

The information obtained from the participants will be kept confidential, and hence there will be no writing of names on the questionnaire; this is the best way of assuring the participants that their participation in the survey will not affect their personal and course progress. The filled questionnaires will be checked for completeness, and follow-up will be made to ensure questions are answered appropriately. A follow-up email will be applied to improve response rates and accuracy. Upon completion, the data collected will be systematically arranged in codes of the questionnaires to ensure the data analysis process takes off seamlessly. Coding is the best way to analyze the obtained data since the research is dealing with quantitative questions rather than open-ended questions. This technique allows repeating themes to be identified and tagged with a code with which they can be searched and counted. The codes are evolved, merged, and broken down to come up with a bunch of themes and ideas of their frequency.

The study variables will include Independent variables [IV] and Dependent variables [DV]. Independent variables can be discussed as controlled inputs, while the dependent variables represent the outcome resulting from the inputs. The Independent variables will be diet, nutrition, states, and the cities. Diet in this study represents the summation of the food an individual consumes daily and circumstances connected to eating. Nutrition, on the other hand, involves consuming a diet rich in the nourishment of every level and is influenced by cohabitants, environment, and individual demographics. Universities differ based on the state in which they are located. Students based in colleges located in highly industrialized states have different nutrition habits when compared to those in states engaged in agricultural activities. The cost of living in cities is usually far higher, and thus the level of income will directly influence expenditure on food. For instance, low-income people tend to suffer most from “food deserts.”

The dependent variables include; College student, age, and sex. The individual-level covariates include the individual socio-demographics, which may be defined as age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, income, and household cohabitants. The dependent variables will be measured using the following questions. Area of residence, does your area of residence in college influence your healthy food choices? The variable on gender will be covered when the participants tick whether they are male, female, or intersex on the questionnaire. The age variable is covered when the respond tick on the age range, 18-20, 20-22, and 22-24, ethnicity when the participants select their ethnic group listed in the dropdown manner and Socioeconomic status when the respondent tick on either, upper class, middle class or low class. Education level is likely to affect diet choices. Students raised in families that have a low level of education are likely to have unhealthy eating habits because of inadequate knowledge of healthy eating habits. Race can be perceived as the ethnic affiliation the students belong to, which impacts the diet choice. The demographic characteristics section in the questionnaire will majorly measure the dependent variables.

Discriminant validity analysis will be conducted to test the correlation between the measurements and concepts. A correlation is a number describing the relationship between two variables. For example, looking at the relationship between gender (DV) and nutrition (IV), based on a hypothesis that “your gender influence nutrition.” Data can be collected, and analysis carried out for each of the genders about nutrition. Nutrition can be scaled between values 1-10 where minimum values represent diet low in nutrition, while maximum value represents diet rich in nutrition. Pearson correlation between independent variables will be observed. Pearson correlation technique is used to determine how strong the relationship is between IV and DV. The Pearson coefficient value, r is calculated to show the relationship between the two variables by use of the following formula;

Where = Mean of the X variables

= Mean of the Y variables

The r-value ranges between -1.00 and 1.00. If the coefficient value, r lies in the negative range, it means that the relationship between the IV and DV variables is negatively correlated; for instance, as one variable increases, the other variable decreases. If the r-value lies in the positive range, it means that the relationship between the variables is positively correlated; for instance, both variables increases or decrease together. Data analysis using the two techniques is much easier as they give a linear relationship between the variables, thus easier to interpret.

In addition, a test to test for biases as information will be obtained from a single group of students will be conducted the utilization of the measure or coding scheme is necessary as it enables the research to give a numeral value to the variables making the research efficient and effective. The study went by the research ethics and codes and ensured no research ethics principle was compromised, especially when dealing with the population and for the integrity of the study.

Nutrition and diet is a topic that has gained popularity stemming from healthy related deaths and complication that affects most people. Parents, while binging up their children, tr

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Nutrition Analysis Report

Nutrition Analysis Report

Nutrition Analysis Report

Student’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Course Tittle

Professor’s Name



When I was young, I had a tendency of an aggressive appetite. I did not care about what I put into my mouth because I was somehow young, and it did not concern me. Over the last six years, I have been more aware of my eating habits. However, I have not been making a conscious attempt to change the foods that my body intakes. According to my psychological needs, they relate to my mind and emotions. The main psychological factor which impacts my food intake includes stress and my prevailing mood. Another thing, in terms of social needs, I am an individual who likes to spend quality time with my friends and family. I also like being busy in my additional time and uniting people using hospitality and food. When I decide to make food for my social groups, my main worries about the food are whether it will be comfortable serving and eating and not the nutritional content of the food. Rather than focusing on nutritional benefits, I focus more on the sharing aspect as an alternative. Other times, I am tempted to take particular foods after smelling their aroma or seeing the foods, mainly when I walk past cafeterias or food stands. In these cases, the sight or smell of food awakens my hunger sensation resulting in me craving the foods in question, and I eventually purchase them.

 The influence of culture is another concern that affects my daily food intake. My culture provides guidelines with respect to the types of food I am considered to take. It also guides my eating patterns and practices. For instance, my culture has influenced me to eat foods such as noodles, rolls, and tortillas. All the way through my diet analysis, I managed to identify eating habits that I was not aware of, particularly during the days of the week. I chose to record three days being Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday.  

Nutrition Analysis

I have realized a lot from these three days of diet analysis project. In my three-day valuation, I noted down my food consumption, the time of day, the amount of time I spent eating, and quantities. According to my results, the average caloric intake I took during the three days was 1770 calories. It was 85, 7% of my assessed energy requirement centered on my activity level, weight, height, and age. I lost 0.4kg during these three days periods. On the other hand, my average protein intake was 86,85 grams, and it was in the recommended range between 54,4 and 190,2 grams. According to the analysis, my present consumption of fiber falls short of meeting my suggested amount. One thing I learned in class is that fiber is significant in a healthy nourishment because it is advantageous in sustaining good digestive health and prevention illnesses, including rectal and colon cancer. The class readings teach that a suitable amount of fiber reduces the risk of heart diseases by lowering the amount of LDL cholesterol within the blood.

Day 1 was lower in more areas. Some were below 50 percent, which included folate, potassium, vitamin B12, dietary fiber, and Sodium. The only one that was high was phosphorus. When I began looking at the results, I thought that I had done well on Day 2 because it appeared to have fewer areas where my levels were low. I thought that the second day had a lot of intakes of minerals, nutrients, and vitamins, but when examining the data closer within the bar graphs of each day, I was not sure it was the case.

 Something that surprised me was that the number of carbohydrates I took on both days was below the recommended amount for me. It is something that troubles me since they are supposed to be high. My findings from day three surprised me too because I did not realize how little I ate but how unhealthy the food choices were. The meals that I took that consisted of the most calories were foods from fast food eateries. I commonly ate a lot of fast food during the three days because my schedule happens to be hectic and nonstop.

I presently do not exercise as frequently as I ought to consider the diets that I consume on a daily basis. I have a plan to improve and maintain better nutrition. My current food consumption practices and choices do not take appropriate nutritional needs into account. As a result, I will try to improve my dietary behavior. One that I am planning on my diet is to always focus on taking a balanced diet. I need to add more vegetables like kales and cabbages and fruits like mangoes, pineapples, oranges and balance my calorie intake and proteins. It is my responsibility to watch my fiber intake and consider an adequate amount of it. I will also take more food that is low in Sodium and fats and reduce the intake of junk foods and snacks. Presently with my calorie consumption, I have a good level of energy. But I every so often feel sleepy and lazy after taking meals. If I reduce my calorie, I might find that there is a reversal in these impacts of laziness and feeling sleepy. 



I managed to do an analysis of my diet to examine what I was eating and the kind of nutrients I was acquiring in my body. I also made a comparison of all aspects with my recommended levels of nutrients for my nutritional recommended consumption. My diet analysis gave me the motivation I required to complete a change within my everyday diet fully. Generally, it is clear that I require to make some changes to my eating habits daily to become healthy and fit. Many factors are influencing my food choices and intake as there are ways of improving the nature of my diet. I know that changing my dietary behavior will not be easier since it needs a lot of self-discipline and commitment. For me to change my eating habits, I will have to remove all foods that have less nutritional value from my diet and replace them with those that have more nutritious value. Having a well-balanced diet is vital for a healthy life and maintaining general boy wellness. I will have many benefits in my body by eating a healthy diet. One way that will help me to reduce this is to read the labels on the food product that I take and choose those that have a lower content of saturated fat. In addition, I can also replace some of the foods with vegetables and fruits, which would, in return, decrease my fat intake and increase my carbohydrate intake. I might even begin packing my lunches because most of the flaws in my food intake result from fast and convenient foods.

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Nutrition Among College Students

Nutrition Among College Students

Nutrition Among College Students

Being in college life is hard one is required to juggle between part time job and school and getting to look at what one eat may be difficult. Diet is an important part of our life. We are often taught that we are what we eat. The American Heart Association recommends that a proper diet should consist mostly of unprocessed plant foods, with emphasis a wide range of whole grains, legumes, non-starchy vegetables and fruits. A healthy diet is considered to be low in energy density which may protect weight gain and associated diseases. Good nutrition however is not all about weight loss. In adequate nutrition has been known to affect a student’s performance because nutrition is of great essence in development of the brain (Powell, 2019). Getting to eat a nutritious diet is not as easy as it requires time to prepare which most college students point out they do not have. There other several factors that contribute to unhealthy nutrition among college students including stress, alcohol and lack of exercise

According to a research by Auburn University 95% of college students do not eat recommended amount of fruits and vegetables (Gropper, 2012). Eating being a tedious process, most college students cannot cook sand prefer eating take outs yet they do not participate in physical activities. Eating disorders especially obesity is common among college students and this is attributed to changes in eating habits, lifestyle changes and stress. In the United States, statistics indicate that, obesity among students have risen drastically. The most recent figures from the National Centre for Health Statistics indicate that a third of U.S. adults 20years and above are suffering from obesity. The numbers are quite high because a third of the population is roughly 100million individuals. The increase cuts across the entire population, meaning obesity cases in young adults and children is on the rise as well (Fruh, 2014).


Fruh, S. M. (2014). Obesity: Risk factors, complications and strategies for sustainable long term weight management. Journal of American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 344-349.

Gropper, S. S., Simmons, K. P., Connell, L. J., & Ulrich, P. V. (2012). Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 37(6), 1118-1123.

Powell, P. K., Durham, J., & Lawler, S. (2019). Food choices of young adults in the United States of America: A scoping review. Advances in Nutrition, 10(3), 479-488.

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NUTR 4408 GAHN 6408 Medical Nutrition Therapy

NUTR 4408 GAHN 6408 Medical Nutrition Therapy

NUTR 4408/GAHN 6408: Medical Nutrition Therapy

Group Case Study

Elderly female with advanced oral cancer


Weam Alamoudi

Erada Alghamdi

Manal Alzubiadi

Submitted to: Dr. Theresa Glanville

5November 2013

Laboratory results for IM:

Lab tests Reference

Range (5) IM’s

Histroy Comments

07/29 08/31 09/12 Albumin (g/L) 35-50 34 33 29 Decreasing gradually, and this is most

likely due to malnutrition in relation to

poor dietary intake and low protein


Hbg (g/L) (130-180) 84 – 97 Gradual slow increase in the last lab result,

may be due to addition of multivitamin supplement or dehydration.

Hct (%) (42%-52%) 24.5 – 28.5 Improving gradually because of the

multivitamins supplement or dehydration.

In fact, the original decrease for Hgb &Hct

is related to inadequate oral food intake,

which increased nutrient need (acute

phase proteins, iron).

Na+ (mEq/L) 135-145 128 133 130 Improving gradually due to multivitamins supplement.

K+ (mEq/L) 3.6-5 3.7 4.1 4.4 Initial low due to dehydration. Overall the

all test result of K+ were within the normal


Things to consider:

IM is a 68 YOBF whose BMI places her in the normal range, and although her BMI has become lower, due to the progression of her cancer, she is still in the normal range. The key is to stop any further loss of weight. IM also has a history of smoking and has type 2 diabetes. Those factors combined, with her age and gender, put her at a greater risk of developing cancer.

The nutrition problem list developed to create a nutrition care plan for IM ranked in the order of importance is as follows:

1. Malnutrition: due to her low food intake, and this will lead to progressive weight loss in a short

time. This is a common side effect of cancer cachexia. Other first side effects are anorexia, fatigue,early satiety, immunosuppression, and metabolic rate. This problem is ranked first on the list because cancer patients require adequate amounts of energy intake, protein, antioxidants, and those factors should be top priority for a registered dietitian (5).

Mucositis / Mouth soreness/ Difficulty swallowing:oral mucositis is a side effect of radiotherapy, which leads to increased difficulty when eating. To reduce soreness of mouth, an RD can monitor the food acidity and its temperature to make it easier for IM to eat. IM’s ability to consume food and liquids, to increase her fluid and energy intake, depends on her ability to swallow, and how comfortable she is with regards to eating. If IM is unable to eat, a feeding tube should be provided (5).

Type 2 Diabetes: as we suggested that the patient could be placed on an enteral feeding plan, if this suggestion is implemented the diabetic formulas should be used, as the patient has type 2 diabetes.

Dehydration and constipation:dehydration could be the cause of the constipation, and it results in low hemoglobin/hematacrit concentrations in the blood. In fact, constipation could cause nausea. Also dehydration leads to electrolyte and fluid imbalances (5).

Nausea and vomiting: secondary problem to radiotherapy and medications (5).An RD can monitor food tolerance, frequency of meals and size. Also, a physician may prescribe medication to decrease the synptoms.

Xerostomia: common side effect of radiotherapy (5), and less significant because fluid could be provided with food, such as soups.

Drug-Nutrient Interactions: having several medications, the patient needs to know if there are any possible drug-nutrient interactions, and how harmful they could be. The drugs described below did not involve any known drug-nutrient interactions, except for the multivitamin.

Low income and potentially minimal access to adequate healthy food, knowledge of food preparation: in the case of our patient, these items would not be our concern because she is getting her treatment at the hospital, and later on when she is feeling better and more alert we could discuss these issues with her.

Medication list:

Dilaudid syrup (Morphine): hydromorphone; a very potent centrally acting analgesic drug of the opioid class. Patient should avoid consuming alcohol to prevent constipation and diarrhea (1). Also, a side effect of dilaudid syrup is hyprecalcemia (2).

Colace: treatment for constipations (should be taken with a plenty of water; used as a stool softener). However, prolonged use may cause irritation of the gastrointestinal tract (3).

Sodium bicarbonate mouth rinse: The most commonly used mouth rinse, a natural buffer to the mouth’s PH that supports good oral health. In fact, this should help IM to improve her mouth soreness.

Mycostatin: polyene antifungal medication. Mycostatin is often given to patients at risk of fungal infections, including those under chemotherapy treatment. In addition, it could also lead to mouth irritation and diarrhea (4).

Multivitamins: contain different kind of formulas that are designed to meet micronutrient needs depending on the elemental forms of a variety of vitamins and minerals. These elemental forms may have an impact onIM’s recovery.

2. PES: The intake of energy and fluid is inadequate in relation to dehydration and stage 3 carcinoma of the mouth, and treatment side effects which lead to swallowing problems and mouth soreness as evidenced by low albumin, low hemoglobin, low hematocrit and low sodium outcomes from the laboratory tests. IM has a history of type 2 diabetes with no further information.

3. Nutrition care plan for IM.

Goals of nutrition care for IM.

1.To prevent nutrient deficiencies.

2.To preserve lean body mass.

3.To minimize nutrition and treatment-related side effects,such as decreased appetite/nausea.

4.To maximize her quality of life and to help her to survive (5).

IM will be in a hospital for almost a month and the gastronomy tube feeding(due to difficulty in swallowing) will be her first treatment to meet her daily caloric needs. When IM shows interest, food and beverages will be provided to encourage her oral eating and drinking, but considering IM’s current status it is crucial to increase the energy intake.

IM is advised to stop taking multivitamin, because the enteral formula will be sufficient to meet her micronutrient needs. Also, multivitamins may interfere with her recovery. Furthermore there is no need for her to take Colace because with the new enteral feeding plan the patient will meet her nutrient and fluid needs. Also, the best option is to wait until the patient’s bowel movements are re-evaluated. The other medications (sodium bicarbonate mouth rinse, and mycostatin) will be maintained, and evaluated except for the increased level of fluids neededdue to the effects of the Dilaudid Syrup.

IM also needs to be educated on good oral health and provided with oral hygiene care. In addition, if during the intervention our patient is not responding well to an enteral feed, expressed by high residual and risk aspiration, a parenteral feeding plan will be formed.

IM requires 1565.7 kcal/day and 2030 ml/day of fluid, as IM has carcinoma on her mouth, mucositis, and will be having 25 radiation treatments to the neck. Therefore, a nasogastric tube (NGT) will be avoided, to decrease the irritation of the cancer and treatment site. In fact, there is no indicator of the GI distress, so a gastronomy tube with polymeric solution should be used to maintain the GI health and function(5). Another problem we need to be aware of is IM’s type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the glucose control formula (Glucerna 1.5) will be used. The administration of the enteral formula will be 5 times a day at a rate of 359 ml of formula accompaniedby 112ml water, because the GI system of most patients can tolerate 500ml. Glucerna 1.5 cal formula contains, per 250 ml: protein, g: 19.6, fat, g: 17.8, carbohydrate, g: 31.5, dietary fiber, g:3.8 L-carnitine, mg:51, taurine, mg:40, m-inositol, mg:205, water, g:180, calories: 356. The energy and fluid requirements for IM will be met using this formula, because it contains sufficient amounts of protein, which will help stabilize her diabetes (6).


Estimated Energy(EE) needs for people with cancer: cancer, nutrition repletion, weight gain:

Daily energy requirements using Harris Benedict’s Equation are based on IM’s diagnosis, anticancer therapy, and metabolic complications. Stress factor for cancer patient is 1.1-1.3

EER=655.1+(9.563xwt)+(1.850xht)-(4.676xage) x stress factor

EER=655.1+(9.563×58)+(1.850×169)-(4.676×68) x 1.3


EER=1522.3-317.9 X 1.3=1204.4 x 1.3= 1565.7 kcal/day

EER Range= 1324.84-1565.7 kcal/day

Protein: based on the degree of malnutrition, disease, stress, and ability to metabolize and use protein. IM needs 10%-35% of protein in her diet. Stress cancer patient: 1.5-2.5 g/kg/day (the higher end of this range will be used due to IM’s situation).

2.5 x 58 kg= 145g/day.

Protein energy malnutrition is the single most common secondary diagnosis in cancer patients (5). So, IM needs 90-100 g protein/day for maintenance and 100-200g protein/day for repletion.

Fat: the recommended level of fat is 20%-35% of energy.

Fluid:The upper level will be used as goal due to current hydration status and opioid medications. The recommendation for adults: 30-35ml/kg/day

58*30= 1740ml/day, 58*35= 2030ml/day.

Fluid received from enteral formula: 1795 ml

Fluid recommend from other source: 2030ml/day-1795ml/day=235ml/day

Fluid required with each feeding: (235ml/day)/5=47ml 5x/day (5)

The selected formula is Glucerna 1.5 formula:

Contains: 1.5kcal/ml, 1795ml/day required to meet energy requirements

Required formula at each feeding= (1795ml/day)/5=359ml 5 times/day (6)

4. An Assessment plan to monitor IM’s progress:

Dietary plan objectives:

Individualized nutrition intervention to ensure adequate nutrition intake and weight maintenance.

Consume a healthy diet that contains the recommended amounts of essential nutrients, including protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamins, minerals, and water.

Consume sufficient amounts of energy and protein to maintain nutrition stores and to achieve and maintain a healthy lean body mass and BMI appropriate for height.

Adopt a physically active lifestyle (5).

Symptoms such as loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, weight change, changes in taste and smell, pain, fatigue, and disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are common side effects of cancer treatment and can lead to inadequate nutrient intake and subsequent malnutrition. In most cases, eating enough foods rich in vitamins, anti-oxidants, calories and protein can prevent malnutrition. These include fruits and vegetables, whole grain products, lean cuts of meat, and whole-fat dairy products (5).

Several support staff will be required to assist IM’s recovery. These will include a speech therapist, a primary oncologist, multiple nurses, a social worker, a dietitian and a variety of lab technicians. IM’s health status will be monitored regularly for factors including alertness, wasting, and complexion. Also, her fluid intake and output will be monitored daily to ensure that she is meeting her energy and fluid needs, and her weight will be measured 3-5 times a week. In addition, it is important to monitor the hydration daily, and electrolytes will be tested in the laboratory on a weekly basis. Based on her weight status, her nutritional adequacy will be re-evaluated and intake will be monitored twice weekly. BUN and creatinine levels will be monitored weekly.

In addition, it is better to monitor gastric residuals before each additional feeding, and record these evaluations to ensure she is maintaining tolerance. If excessive residuals are persistent for more than 2 consecutive feedings, then the bolus rate will be re-evaluated and lowered. To control type 2 Diabetes, hydration status, and wasting, the levels of albumin, serum glucose, Hct, and Hbg will be monitored weekly. If the nutritional status has improved then albumin status will be improved, related to the evidence that albumin can be used as indicator of morbidity, and so it will be monitored weekly (7).

Since the patient is receiving radiotherapy and has been taken off of Colace, her bowel movements will be monitored daily to ensure regularity and the absence of constipation or diarrhea. It is also crucial to monitor IM’s oral health to ensure that current food choices and feeding options are still relevant. In the end, the client and her family members should be evaluated to ensure that they understand the principles of food safety prior to discharge.

5. Prepare a chart note (using ADIME format) detailing your plan for IM.


Pt. is 68 YOWF admitted with stage 3 carcinoma on floor of the mouth

Normal Ht.:169 cm Normal Wt.: 62 kg Current Wt.: 58 kg

Estimated Wt. Loss: – 4kg

BMI (current) 20.3, and BMI (usual) 21.7. Both are normal.

Laboratory results indicate low and decreasing albumin.

Laboratory value noted:

Albumin(g/L) Hbg (g/L) Hct(%) Na+(mEq/L) K+(mEq/L)

07/29 34 84 24.5 128 3.7

08/31 33 – – 133 4.1

09/12 29 97 28.5 130 4.4

EER:1565.7 kcal/day, depending on current weight, cancer and also the desire to gain more weight.

Fluid requirements: 1740-2030ml/day

Protein requirement: 145g/day

IM is eating~550 kcal/day (without consider the discard food, and over estimation).

Previous smoker.

Unknown dietary history.

On multiple medications: Dilaudid syrup, Colace, multivitamin, mycostatin, and sodium bicarbonate mouth rainse.

Experiencing mouth soreness, and difficulty swallowing.

Disordered cognition

The presence of worsening mucositis (09/07)

Undergoing radiotherapy (25 sessions) 09/03-10/04

Patient has type 2 Diabetes (IM may have previously taken unknown medication but is not on insulin).


Increased caloric needs related to the presence of tumor from carcinoma.

Progressive wasting due to malnutrition, related to increased nutrition requirements for total energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate.

IM has increased protein catabolism as evidenced by the decreasing level of serum albumin.

Energy intake is inadequate, evidenced by caloric count of`550kcal/day and weight loss of 4kg.

IM is exhibiting dehydration as evidenced by low sodium levels, very high HBG, mucositis, difficulty swallowing, and very low Hct.


Immediate EN (gastronomy enteral nutrition) plan – (PEG tube) of Glucerna 1.5cal as a bolus 5 times a day: 359ml Glucerna 1.5cal and 112ml water per feeding to meet IM fluid and energy need.

Remove multivitamin and Colace medication.

Applied swallowing test.

Determine current diabetes management and use glucose control formula.

Educate patient and her family about good oral hygiene, risk factors related to poor diet, food safety, and proper diet prior to discharge.

Goals to reach:

Suppress tumor growth.

Limit patient discomfort.

Patient will progress from PEG feeding to oral feeding.

Adequate intake of energy and fluids.

Control the level of blood glucose (type 2 diabetes) without adding any medication.

Increase patient’s body weight and minimize wasting.


Weight: 3-5 per week.

Fluid input and output: daily.

Gastric residual: before each feeding (5 times daily).

Bowel movements: daily.

Albumin, serum glucose, Hbg, Hct, BUN, creatinine: weekly.

Mouth soreness: daily.

Ability to swallow: weekly.

Hydration: daily.

Electrolytes, Na+, K+, Calcium: weekly.

PEG tolerance: daily.

Nutrition intake calories and adequacy: 2x/week.


Determine need for Colace, and anticipate weight gain until IM returns to her normalweight, as well as possible improvements in serum albumin, Hbg, Hct, NA+, K+, and blood glucose.

Also, determine if the patient is able to consume foods and beveragesorally without any problem.

6. Prepare IM for discharge and follow-up: When IM completes her treatment she and her daughter will be educated on how to follow a healthful diet with regards to IM’s condition prior to her discharge. During that time they will also be informed of the risks of consuming an unhealthful diet, and smoking in relation to the potential reoccurrence of cancer. Since IM has difficulty listening to instructions, she will be also given dietary instructions in written form. Furthermore, it is suggested that she follow up with a dietitian within 2 weeks of discharge so that her dietary intake can be monitored and so she can be given encouragement to follow a healthful diet.Finally, establish slow, steady weight gain and physical activity goals for the next three months, by reporting the importance of physical activity in rebuild muscles, regain strength and energy. Exercise also stimulates appetite, improves mood, reduces side effects such as nausea and constipation (5).

References: “Drugs information online: Dilaudid syrup” Last modified Oct 2013,dilaudid-cough-syrup.html. Accessed Oct 30 2013.

Purdue Pharma. 2008. “Monograph: Dilaudid”. Last modified April 28 Accessed Oct 30 2013. “Drugs information online: Colace” Last modified Oct 2013 Accessed Oct 29 2013. “Drugs information online: Mycostatin” Last modified Oct 2013 Accessed Oct 29 2013.

Mahan K, Escott-Stump S, Raymond J. Krause’s food and the nutrition care process, 13th ED. Elsevier Saundres. Missouri. 2012.

Abbott Nutrition. 2013. “Glucerna 1.5 cal” Last modified n.d. Accessed Oct 30 2013.

Fuhrman MP, Charney P, Muller CM. Hepatic protein and nutrition assessment. J Am Diet Assoc. 2004 08;104(8);1258-64.

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Nursing’s knowledge development through theory and research are underpinned by two philosophical orientations

Nursing’s knowledge development through theory and research are underpinned by two philosophical orientations

Nursing’s knowledge development through theory and research are underpinned by two philosophical orientations: positivism (quantitative) and the naturalistic, humanistic approach (qualitative). Importantly, both types of research are valid. The two types of research generate different types of nursing knowledge through selected research methods (Gray & Grove, 2021). The DNP-prepared nurse uses both types of research. Gaining an understanding and learning to critique the different types of research is integral to the work of the DNP-prepared nurse. As you consider the Global Burden of Disease and National Practice Problems, your search for recent research will allow you to focus on an area of interest related to a practice problem.

As you gain knowledge about these equally important ways to conduct research, you will learn to discern quantitative (positivism, empirics) and qualitative (interpretive human science) research paradigms. As you consider these two paradigms of nursing research, you will have a better understanding of the different types of research in the manuscripts you are critiquing. You will use the Johns Hopkins Appraisal Tool as a step-by-step process to discern the quality of what you are reading. Knowing how to use this tool to discern the level (I, II, III, or IV) and quality (A, B, and C) of the evidence, will be a foundational competency for the DNP-prepared nurse. Mastery of these skills will provide the foundation for building the required research to support your future work as a DNP-prepared nurse.

Quantitative research is a systematic inquiry that tests a hypothesis, determines cause and effect relationship between variables, and makes predictions. Quantitative research determines the relationship between one variable (an independent variable) and another (a dependent or outcome variable) within a population. When you review a quantitative research article you will see the use of numbers, statistical analysis, measurement using valid tools, and an objective approach by the researcher. There are four types of quantitative research you will recognize as you search the literature:




Nonexperimental (descriptive etc.)

Selecting Evidence and Information Resources

Honing literary search skills is an ongoing learning process. When you have mastered the literature search, you will have both the confidence and the ability to identify appropriate research evidence related to your practice problem. Credible sources of research evidence come from many resources, and the DNP-prepared nurse must be familiar with these resources. Searching in only one database limits your ability to locate the most current evidence. The DNP student must possess a toolbox of skills to learn search techniques and to critically appraise evidence. These skills include an understanding of what constitutes the best research evidence and knowledge of where to find it.

You may already be somewhat familiar with library databases. These databases provide an electronic search index of a collection of literature. Examples of databases to inform evidence-based practice include the following:

Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL)

Medical Literature Online (MEDLINE)

Health and Psychosocial Instruments (HaPI)

As you continue learning search techniques, you will find there are also specific sources for evidence-based research and systematic reviews in the Joanna Briggs Institute and the Cochrane Library.

You will begin your search this week. You will discover the importance of choosing specific keywords related to a practice problem you would like to explore. For example, you may be thinking about the need to improve care related to screening for postpartum depression. Your search terms might include one of the following combinations:

Postpartum depression AND Research

Postpartum depression AND Screening

You will also learn how to use the limiters to help you find the most recent, relevant, peer-reviewed research.

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Nursing is a profession

Nursing is a profession





Job Description

Nursing is a profession within the healthcare field which is mainly focused on care for people, families, and communities in general. The major role of a nurse entails helping people achieve and maintain maximum health. Only through provision of adequate and relevant education, they will be knowledgeable about attaining optimal quality of life. It makes nursing a very important career because of an imminent contribution it makes to people’s lives (Donahue, 2007).

A nurse should also help in caring for patients brought under hospital care. In this situation, a nurse can provide them with clothing and a primary treatment while waiting for doctor’s directives on the next step to take depending on a patient’s health condition. At the same time, nurses can offer special treatments in emergency cases. For instance, in case of an accident, a nurse will play a big role in providing treatment to injured persons. Such situations always call for immediate actions. Furthermore, nurses can be critical to the extent that failure to abide by their decision might greatly threaten lives of patients.

Education and Certification

It has been a long time since nursing became one of the most reputable professions worldwide. Because of this, its practice is governed by laws stipulated by nearly all countries in the world. The profession has become one of the cornerstones in medical care in different places. In this regard, people intending to join nursing colleges have to meet certain educational standards. Entry requirements for nursing courses are regulated by the national government. It implies that anyone planning to be a nurse must meet national standards in order to qualify for training as a nurse.

Universally, there are certificate, diploma, Bachelor’s, Master’s, and Doctoral degree programs in nursing. For one to be admitted to a nursing college for any of the above qualifications, he or she must have excelled in secondary and high schools and achieved good results. Only those who meet minimum qualifications can be accepted to these programs. Even if selection criteria may vary from country to country, applicants are expected to be well-acquainted with English and science subjects such as Biology, Chemistry, and Physics. This is because this knowledge will provide a basic foundation essential to programs. A nurse must have a deeper understanding of human anatomy, a study taught exclusively in Biology (DeWit, 2009).

For one to qualify for certification, he or she must prove to be competent both in theoretical and practical concepts learnt during a chosen program. These are some fundamental skills in clinical nursing which anyone must possess. At the same time, they should prove to meet required competency standards and codes of ethics necessary for this profession. An ethical nurse will operate within professional norms of providing selfless, confidential, and benevolent services for the benefit of a patient, who should, of course, be the main centre of focus. If nurses act this way, the society will benefit from quality services which can be relied on at any given time. This is what is required by the Hippocratic Oath which they take upon graduation.


There are plenty of job opportunities for nurses over the world. Such opportunities come from the government, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and other private investors interested in the medical arena. Nurses can be assigned to dispensaries, health centers, and hospitals. Each of these work places provides favorable working environments and salary packages in line with international standards. However, salary paid will also depend on one’s qualifications, experience, and employer (DeWit, 2009).

On the other hand, all nurses should get fair salaries because they offer life-saving services which cannot be overlooked. This is why they are allowed to form a nursing professional groups and trade unions to fight for their rights. Advocacy is done in collaboration with ministries of labor, national trade unions, and International Labor Organization (ILO) which plays a very important role in regulating salaries for such professionals.

Professional Activities

Because of sensitivity of nursing profession, nurses are expected to conform to medical codes of ethics. It should be done in line with the Hippocratic Oath which all nurses have to take during their graduations. If they do this, they will put interests of their patients prior to anything else. As a result, nurses will always do all that they can to save lives of patients and serve them with dignity that they deserve.

Nurses should act professionally in anything they do. Observance of ethical conducts must prevail both in attending to patients and carrying out any research. Apart from dealing with patients, nurses also engage in a series of researches which are meant to disseminate new information for the benefit of the profession. When doing any of these, nurses should know that they are performing a very important duty which should not only be regarded as a career but also as a calling (Donahue, 2007).


To conclude, it is essential to point out the fact that nursing is a noble profession. Since it involves lives of people, nurses should always strive to provide the best services not to jeopardize a life they should be saving. Admission criteria to nursing colleges should be enough stringent in order to ensure selection of passionate and qualified applicants. It is only inherent nurses who can abide by the Hippocratic Oath as a principal gear in the nursing profession. It will make nursing regain its lost glory and become one of the most lucrative careers.


DeWit, S.C. (2009). Fundamental concepts and skills for nursing. Missouri: Saunders Elsevier.

Donahue, M. P. (2007). Nursing, the finest art: An illustrated history (3rd ed.). St. Louis, MO:


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Nursing Theory

Nursing Theory

Nursing Theory

Presented by


Question one:

The King’s theory of Goal Attainment analyzes the output of nurses in achieving health goals and promoting patient outcome. In the given case, the Goal Attainment theory would play a big role in planning, implementing and evaluating the care of the patient. The goal attainment theory claims that an effective communication between nurses and patients helps in attaining health care goals (Basavanthappa, 2007, p. 165).


The theory promotes good nurse-patient interpersonal relationship, which will be used in planning visits to monitor blood sugar levels, diet advises, exercise courses and mode of medication. The theory ensures timely consultation between the two parties making it easier for the implementation of the planned activities.


After planning for the patient’s care activities implementation follows. The theory ensures effective communication between the nurse and the patient promoting togetherness that helps in timely implementation of the proposed plan.


The evaluation process involves identifying the patient’s outcomes and analyzing them to determine whether there is any observable change. The theory introduces a framework that helps in evaluating the outcome of a health care plan. The concept of personal system helps in understanding patient’s nature making it easier for the nurse to self-evaluate the patient.

Question two:

The Levine’s Four Conservation Principles theory is the most appropriate for Ann Ching’s case. Levine’s theory claims that different individuals adapts differently to internal and external environments. Some individual might have similar adaptive features but organismic responses are unique (Levine, 2009). From Levine’s theoretical perspective, Ching suffered from two main problems. Firstly, the organ transplant made Ching develop a poor interaction with the environment that resulted into poor adaptation to the environment. There was lack of balance between her normal body organs and the new liver. Secondly, Ching’s lifestyle changed because she used to live a healthy lifestyle, but suddenly started surviving on drugs. As a mother of two and an employee, she could not bear sitting down and taking drugs while her family had no one to take care of since the husband was busy developing new software. Ching undergoes a stressing life. Stress is one of the aspects of the Levine’s theory.

The most appropriate nursing intervention for Ching’s case would be constant therapy and counseling sessions in order to make her accept the new life. In addition, Ching need to be assigned a home-care practitioner to constantly check her status, encourage her to take medication and eat a healthy diet in order to ensure quick adaptation of the new liver to her body system. It is expected that Ching’s body will effectively adapt to the new environment and go back to her normal life.

Question three:

The positivist paradigm observes the world as a base for unchanging universal laws and assumes that everything occurring in nature is explained through the knowledge of universal laws. People need to observe and understand the situations surrounding them in order to understand the universal law and promote positivist. The knowledge of positivist comes from scientific research where researchers use quantitative methodology approach. It results to a scientific, logical approach to research. Positivist also forms the source of all authoritative knowledge. In the field of nursing and medicine, positivist’s knowledge assumes that all health care issues in a society would be explained in a theoretical approach. In addition, the knowledge of positivist is acquired from philosophers who derive logical and mathematical treatments and reports that explain the nature of the universal law and its application to the field of nursing research.


Basavanthappa, B. T. (2007). Nursing theories. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers.

Levine, M. E. (2009). Myra Levine’s Conservation Theory. Retrieved November 3, 2014 from

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Nursing Theory to Direct

Nursing Theory to Direct

Nursing Theory to Direct Her Care

The most appropriate nursing theory is the Theory of Human Caring by Jean Watson. This theory contends that caring potentiates an individual’s capabilities and regenerates their life energies. As highlighted by Jean Watson, the benefits of caring include but are not limited to self-actualization, which is one of the aspects the 30-year-old woman needs. Therefore, the Theory of Human Caring emphasizes the nursing’ humanistic aspects that healthcare practitioners are supposed to intertwine with the nursing practice and scientific knowledge. The theory would also help the patient learn how to mold her immediate environment, including relationships, to benefit her health (McEwen & Willis, 2017).

Concepts from Other Theories That Can Be Used to Enhance Her Care

Human beings cannot be treated as mere objects or separated from the self.

Resilience can be grown from social assistance, optimistic thinking, a sense of meaning, and robust relationships. It forms the foundation of healthcare education.

Adaptability encompasses the capacity to transform or alter with new information due to the predicament adjustments. Resilience and adaptation are significant in the Strain Theory and Adaptation Model in Nursing Experience. The following tool is pivotal to transforming nurses to be more compassionate, empathetic, and powerful.

Professionalism should be upheld during patient care as well as observing responsibility,

advocacy, and respect (Black, 2019).

The patients need to maintain autonomy over their self-care (Self Care Deficit Theory by

Dorothea Orem).

Social help – there are cognitive and emotional benefits to being surrounded by the right

people to understand one’s feelings.

Emphasis should be placed on the care delivery systems that promote learning from errors,

prevents errors using non-punitive measures, and promotes a culture of safety.

The healthcare practitioners should employ a clinical decision-making process government

by subjective and objective information about a patient. This helps avoid exposing the

healthcare consumer to risks.

A healthcare system should uphold moral rules to defend and protect the rights of the

healthcare consumers, avoid harm, and mitigating conditions that can contribute to harm.

Other concepts include;

Social supports, behavioral therapy, cognitive, or psychotherapy

Pharmacotherapy, and

Supportive counseling


Black, B. (2019). Professional nursing e-book: Concepts & challenges. Elsevier Health Sciences.

McEwen, M. and Wills, E.M., 2017. A theoretical basis for nursing. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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Describe Leonsis concept of idea generation and explain the approach you would take as an entrepreneur in this kind of busine

Describe Leonsis concept of idea generation and explain the approach you would take as an entrepreneur in this kind of busine

Small Business Management






Small Business Management

1. Describe Leonsis concept of idea generation and explain the approach you would take as an entrepreneur in this kind of business.

Leonsis’ ways of idea generation are both creative and imaginative. With regard to the case study, he generates a business idea from an obituary of a renowned writer. He was able to go beyond the obituary into finding out the writing of the diseased. It is in the process that he came across the term Nainking and decided to use it in to produce a Chinese based film. Certainly, the film industry is very sensitive and requires imagination and high degree of creativity in order to realize positive returns. As an entrepreneur, I would start by designing my brand in such a way that it addresses the needs of a certain market. This is vitally important because it enhances positive reception.

This would be attained through undertaking of comprehensive and exhaustive market research. With respect to implementation, I would undertake effective marketing to ensure that my target market is well informed about the availability of the product in the market. At this point, it is worth acknowledging that customer knowledge about the availability of the product in the market enables them to acquire it. To enhance optimal performance of the product in the market, I would use creativity to ensure that the respective product is unique.

2. Describe your big idea and the methods you would use for finding statistics to validate the market size and growth opportunity for your potential business

My big idea pertains to the development of comedian films and computer games for teenagers and small children. Recent research indicates that these films and games enhance the motor skills of the children. They are therefore recommended for small children and the teenagers. With the current busy lifestyles, parents are finding it increasingly difficult to spend sufficient time with their children. Moreover, the pervasive nature of technological advancements has increased the accessibility of the children to technological devices. From a psychological point of view, comedies help in addressing incidences of stress and depression that undermine effective functioning of the teenagers.

Certainly, I would use wide ranging methods to validate the size of the market as well as the growth opportunities for this business. To begin with, there are a host of secondary as well as primary sources that provide useful insights regarding the size of the market for this business. These will be employed in informing decision making during the initial stages. Then, I would undertake actual field surveys to determine the size of the market. This can be undertaken online especially considering that a segment of the market representing teenagers can be easily found on line. Market trends indicate that sizes of markets tend to be dynamic in nature. Undertaking field surveys would enable me to generate factual information as well as data for decision making.

3. How would you leverage your resources and network of contacts to begin to accomplish your entrepreneurial goal?

It can not be disputed that resources are vitally important for effective and successful establishment of any business. Developing comedy films and compute games requires both financial and labor resources. I would mobilize sufficient resources by borrowing money from relevant financial institutions. In addition, I would make great efforts to attract investors in the business by ensuring that its operations yield beneficial results. Currently, research shows that there are various financial institutions that are willing to empower entrepreneurs accordingly. Winning their confidence would be imperatively important in ensuring that the financial ability of the business is secured.

With regards to leveraging contacts, I would attain this through advertisement and employment of word of mouth. In this regard, the target audience would be the adults with small children as well as teenagers. Ensuring high quality especially during production is useful in enhancing return purchase too. Maintaining a database of clients would also be useful in enabling me to have their contacts at all times.

4. What strategies would you use to set up your network to start your own business?

Starting up a business can be very tricky and it requires a high degree of creativity. The manner in which business operations kick off in most instances determines the performance of the business in future. For this reason, it would be important to ensure that business operations kick off well. To set up a network, I would employ social networking sites. Emergent research indicates that a significant percentage of the teenagers are always found on these sites. Creating a fan page or inviting friends in the business facebook account would for instance go a long way in improving the network of the business.

Because of the fact that the initial costs tend to be higher, it would be important to utilize the internet first before establishing a physical office. Nonetheless, it would also be important to liaise with important regulatory bodies in order to foster effective functioning. Initially, I would also collaborate with the existing businesses in identifying and establishing credible contacts with viable clients. Since they have been in business for a significant period of time, they ought to be conversant with the needs of the clients as well as general market trends. Therefore, merging the business with another existing one during the initial stage would be useful in helping me to kick start operations effectively and successfully.

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