Deductive Memo

Deductive Memo

Deductive Memo

Author’s Name

Institutional Affiliation

Deductive Memo

To: Charles Duane Baker, Massachusetts Governor

From: Kinn Elliot, Legislative Strategist for the Vapor Technology Association (VTA)

Date: November 22, 2019.

Re: Lifting the Temporary Vaping Ban

Greetings

This memo is created to summarize the facts that guide the recommendations of Vapor Technology Association to the Massachusetts Governor’s office regarding lifting the four-month ban the Governor instituted on September 24, 2019, on responsibly manufactured vaping products. The fundamental conviction is that these recommendations are consistent with circumventing many legal battles surrounding the ban.

The Governor’s declaration of public health emergency towards combating the epidemic of vaping-related lung injuries and the subsequent Governor’s temporary ban on vaping in Massachusetts are hereby acknowledged with the utmost respect. However, following critical evaluation and in-depth reevaluation of the current situation, we at Vapor Technology Association feel that the ban could only be a partial win for the Governor as it will only prompt more needless legal battles. Our critical analysis culminated in the identification of several facts and factors that will only plague and exacerbate the political and legal atmosphere in Massachusetts.

The first and foremost fact is that the temporary ban is controversial and precarious because it is biased in the way in which nicotine-vaping products are categorized. While we acknowledge FDA’S warning against the use of tetrahydrocannabinol-containing products, we also observe that the agency strongly emphasizes that the vaping products that pose dangers to public health are the tetrahydrocannabinol-containing products purchased on the streets because they are irresponsibility manufactured and unregulated (Hernandez, 2019; O’Connor, 2012). So, when launching this crackdown, responsibly manufactured commercial vaping products that contain only nicotine and not tetrahydrocannabinol should have been exempted as they adhere to the standards provided regarding regulating the amount of nicotine. By failing to acknowledge the existence of responsible and standards-driven manufacturers of nicotine-flavored vaping products, this ban is simply an executive overreach that will drag the Governor into more legal battles without a doubt.

The second fact is that the ban will not be a long-term solution to the vaping crisis because it is flawed. One of its flaws, identified by Judge Donald Wilkins, is the failure to address whether the public health emergency exists only for adult users of vaping products or for both adult and young users. Critically, the ban is based chiefly on the epidemic of lung injuries among young users of nicotine-vaping products (Garrison, 2019; Raymond, 2019). Indeed, this fault was the basis upon which Judge Wilkins recommended the resubmission of the order covering nicotine products as an emergency directive. Another flaw of this ban is that it does serve the interests of the public per se. This is because it will stimulate many ex-smokers of tobacco who had switched to e-cigarettes to return to heavy smoking of cigars, a fact that Siegel, a Boston University professor of community health sciences, confirms (Garrison, 2019). By creating circumstances that force ex-smokers to return to their smoking behaviors, this ban will trigger more public health concerns, thereby culminating in many potential lawsuits.

The third fact is that this ban is a dreadful recipe for legal battles because it will facilitate the creation of new black markets that sell unregulated and subpar vaping products in Massachusetts. We are wary that when responsibly manufactured flavored vaping products are completely swept out, nicotine users will not just quit. Siegel corroborates our concern by maintaining that the Governor’s ban will stimulate the formation of black markets that sell unregulated vaping products (Garrison, 2019). For this reason, some nicotine users and ex-smokers will turn to cigarette smoking while a significant majority will resort to seeking unregulated vaping-product black markets. They will do so to continue sourcing flavored e-cigars, which are a preference for many adults and youths as Satel (2019) submits. What this means is that the political move of banning responsibly manufactured vaping products will only brace the use of dubious and bootleg vaping products, leading to unprecedented legal problems. It is worth recalling that black markets do not only exacerbate the challenges of legal product regulation but also complicate policy-centered efforts to combat crises (Maloney & Hernandez, 2019).

Based on these three facts, it is evidence that the ban will more likely exacerbate the vaping crisis than mitigate it. Eventually, the exacerbation of the crisis will yield more lawsuits and legal battles than legitimate solutions. Therefore, our recommendation and appeal to the Massachusetts Governor are that he changes his mind and lift this ban towards avoiding such further legal battles. The Governor needs to know that the relative safety of e-cigarettes has been documented across other states in the United States. He also needs to appreciate the research-based confirmation that responsibly produced vaping products have played an irrefutable role in lessening the adult smoking rate to 14%, along with curtailing the youth smoking prevalence (Prochaska & Benowitz, 2019; Rhoades et al., 2019; Satel, 2019). While the ethos of banning vaping is the relative risk involved, research outcomes confirm the benefits of smoking harm reduction through vaping. So, the Governor is entreated to lift this ban and look for better alternatives to dealing with the epidemic of vaping-related lung injuries because targeting responsible producers of regulated vaping products will only stimulate needless legal battles.

Respectfully

Kinn Elliot.

References

O’Connor, R. J. (2012). Non-cigarette tobacco products: what have we learnt and where are we headed?. Tobacco control, 21(2), 181-190.

Prochaska, J. J., & Benowitz, N. L. (2019). Current advances in research in treatment and recovery: Nicotine addiction. Science advances, 5(10), eaay9763.

Rhoades, D. A., Comiford, A. L., Dvorak, J. D., Ding, K., Hopkins, M., Spicer, P., … & Doescher, M. P. (2019). Vaping patterns, nicotine dependence and reasons for vaping among American Indian dual users of cigarettes and electronic cigarettes. BMC public health, 19(1), 1211.

Hernandez, S. (October 04, 2019). The US Government Is Now Warning People Not To Use Any Vaping Products With THC. Buzz Feed News. Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/salvadorhernandez/no-vaping-thc-warning-fda.

Maloney, J., & Hernandez, D. (October 06, 2019). Vaping’s black market complicates efforts to combat crises. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://www.wsj.com/articles/vapings-black-market-complicates-efforts-to-combat-crises-11570354204.

Raymond, N. (October 21, 2019). Massachusetts vaping sales ban can stand but needs fixes: Judge. Thompson Reuters. Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-vaping-massachusetts/massachusetts-vaping-sales-ban-can-stand-but-needs-fixes-judge-idUSKBN1X01SL.

Garrison, J. (October 21, 2019). Massachusetts vaping ban can stand for now, but state must fix flaws in a week, judge says. USA Today. Gannett Satellite Information Network, LLC. Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2019/10/21/judge-rules-massachusetts-vaping-ban-can-stand-if-issues-addressed/4051203002/.

Satel, S. (October 23, 2019). The vaping overreaction. The Atlantic. Retrieved November 22, 2019, from https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/10/danger-vaping-bans/600451/.

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Define the terms autotrophy, heterotrophy, primary producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer.

Define the terms autotrophy, heterotrophy, primary producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer.

Define the terms autotrophy, heterotrophy, primary producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer.

Autotrophic are those organisms that use other organic chemicals to manufacture their own food. Autotrophic are known to be independent on this process of manufacturing food. They highly depend on nonliving substances like sunlight and chlorophyll which acts as a catalyst in this process. The process of the autotrophic manufacturing their own food is known as photosynthesis. Examples of autotrophic organisms include plants, blue-green bacteria and algae. These organisms diffuse solar energy from the radiations to help in the process of photosynthesis.

Heterotrophic are creatures that take in biomass for production of energy and nutrition in their bodies. All heterotrophic are fully dependent on autotrophic for biological products. All animals are known to be heterotrophic and also the microorganisms. Heterotrophic are classified according to the biomass they take in. For example animals that feed on plants are referred to as herbivores. Animals that feed on other animals are called carnivores. Also there are those microorganisms that feed on dead plants and animals and they are referred to as decomposers. There is also that class of creatures that feed on both plant and animals that are living and they are known as omnivores.

Primary producers are all those organisms that take in chemicals and other nonliving materials to manufacture their own food. They do not feed on other organisms to gain energy and nutrition but they manufacture their own food. All plants and algae are known to be the primary producers. This means that autotrophic are primary producers. On the other hand, all herbivores are primary consumers but not all primary consumers are herbivores. This is because herbivores are those animals that feed on plants only. Plants are known to be primary producers therefore this makes the herbivores to be the primary consumers. Examples of herbivores include cows, goats, sheep, rabbits and all other animals that feed on plants. The other class is that of secondary consumers which carnivores. These are the animals that feed on herbivores. The herbivores feed on plants and the herbivores are feed on by the carnivores. This trend is what creates a food chain as it starts from the primary producers to the last which are the decomposers.

What is Pico plankton? What are some examples of these organisms? Why are they important?

Pico plankton is a fraction of plankton which is usually classified into photosynthetic and heterotrophic. Photosynthetic Pico planktons are those that assist in the process of photosynthesis while heterotrophic Pico planktons are those that do not perform the process of photosynthesis. Achaea form a major part of Pico plankton in the Antarctic and they are also in a large portion in other parts of the ocean. Photosynthetic Pico planktons are found in the central parts of the ocean where the plants are located very deep in the waters therefore the levels of nutrients in those parts are very low. There are present in order to assist in the process of photosynthesis for those plants that are found in the deep waters. Examples of Pico planktons include the prokaryotic and eukaryotic phototrophic and heterotrophic organisms that are located in most of the lakes and tropic state.

Explain the differences between vertebrates and invertebrates?

Vertebrates are all those animals that have a backbone. Vertebrates can either be warm or cold blooded. Those that are warm blooded can only survive on land and places with favorable temperature. Those that are cold blooded have adapted well in water bodies as they retain the heat within the body. Examples of vertebrates include mammals, reptiles, fish, birds and amphibians. All human beings are vertebrates because they have the back bone and a spinal cord. Animals like crocodiles, fish, cows, dogs, frogs and birds are all vertebrates because they have the bone structure. Vertebrates have a high developed brain and nervous system. They have an outer protective skin for their cellular.

However invertebrates are insects and worms that do not have a bone structure. They are termed as invertebrates because they do not have a back bone. They usually reproduce sexually and they have no cell wall. They therefore do not require a skin for protection. Examples of invertebrates include ants, ringworms, tapeworms and grasshoppers. Most invertebrates are known to be heterotrophic.

What are extremophiles? Where can they be found? How can they survive there?

Extremophiles are those organisms that have a unique characteristic of being able to survive in area with extremes. They are known for their high tolerance in areas that are considered of extreme environments. For example there are animals that can survive in waters that are extremely salty and they make that as their habitat. There are those who will do very well in areas whose temperatures are extremely low and others extremely high. There are also those organisms that will be best suite by volcanic pools and they adopt that as their habitat. Basically extremity can only be described by the beholder of such extreme conditions. However there are those organisms like plants and animals that have a complex life and therefore cannot survive in such kind of extremity because they are fragile.

Majority of extremophiles are Achaea and bacteria which can survive in very hostile conditions. They are known to be fragile but they have a way of making themselves adapt to such extreme climatic conditions. Extremophiles can be found in areas with very low temperatures, high concentration of sugars, high levels of dissolved metals and places with very high acidity level. These bacteria need such extreme condition for them to survive and to work efficiently. They have been made in a way to survive in those harsh conditions.

What are wind turbines? Why is it often desirable to locate them offshore?

Wind turbines are devices that are well known for their extraction of energy from the wind. They can only work under the pressure from the wind in order for them to drive a pump. Wind turbines are usually used for the production of electrical power. These wind turbines are best located offshore because this is where the concentration of wind is constant. The quantitative measure of wind energy is best at the offshore of large water bodies. Cyclic winds may destroy the turbines due to the strong forces that accompany them.

What does it mean to be bio-degradable?

Biodegradable matter is usually the organic material such as animal or plant matter that comes from living organisms and their breaking down can be put to use by the microorganism. All living organisms that have cells in them are biodegradable meaning that they decompose easily once their cells are dead. There is an extracellular surfactant that is secreted by the microorganisms that hasten the process of decomposition. The whole process of decomposition of the living organisms is what is known as biodegradation.

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Defining Conflict and Identifying Personal Mediation Skills

Defining Conflict and Identifying Personal Mediation Skills

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Defining Conflict and Identifying Personal Mediation Skills

From a sociological point of view, conflicts are a common occurrence in human relationships because of the fact that humans hold varied views and perceptions towards common things and issues. In a work environment, human conflicts are common and have diverse impacts on the performance of the affected employees. Basically, a conflict refers to a state of opposition that occurs when individuals carry out activities that are not mutually consistent. Usually, it is characterized by a form of disagreement in which the parties involved consider the opposing views to be a threat to their concerns, interests or needs. The respective individuals may want to do a similar thing using different ways or may want to pursue different things that are incompatible.

The conflict situation is usually resolved when inherent differences are reconciled and made consistent to each other. Within a social context, the causes of conflicts are wide and varied. In addition, their magnitude is different and the implications that they have on the holistic wellbeing of the individuals in work environments are diverse. Generally, it is widely agreed that conflicts can be potentially harmful if they are allowed to persist. For this reason, various approaches are employed in addressing the conflicts.

In his review, Moore (2003) indicates that the manner in which a conflict is approached directly influences the nature of its management. For this reason, it is important for relevant parties to review the conflict scenario and adopt approaches that would enhance resolution as opposed to escalation. To begin with, the collaboration approach reviews the perceptions of warring parties while asserting authoritative views at the same time. In particular, collaboration reviews the main differences between the involved parties, identifies the major issues and seeks to find a solution through mutual agreement. This is sustainable because the conflicting parties contribute equally to the ultimate solution.

A conflict can also be approached through compromising. In this regard, the warring parties are made to forego certain needs in order to resolve the problem. The accommodating approach on the other hand involves one party accepting the perception of the other party in a bid to reinstate a stable relationship. In certain instances, Boulle, Colatrella and Picchioni (2008) indicate that a conflict can call for avoidance. In this respect, one or both parties delay their response to the conflict or simply withdraw from it. This usually works well in cases where individuals or organizations are very angry and wish to withdraw in a bid to cool off in order to be able to approach the conflict in a more rational manner. Notably, all these approaches are vital in different contexts and are useful for managing a variety of conflicts.

Perhaps the most sustainable and useful approach to conflict resolution pertains to mediation. Cahn and Abigail (2007) contend that the process of mediation is very complex and technical and as such, it requires certain specialized skills. An analysis of my personal competencies of negotiation shows that I have certain mediation skills that have enabled me to resolve a couple of conflicts in an organizational environment. Statistical evidence ascertains that organizations are liable to conflicting scenarios because of the different nature of their human resources. One of the most important mediation skills that I consider myself to be proficient in is active listening. In this regard, I have the ability to give my full attention to whatever the warring parties say. I take sufficient time to understand the various points and assertions made by the respective persons and make inferences accordingly. Whenever I do not understand any point being made by an individual, I ask appropriate questions and request for clarification accordingly. Most importantly, I refrain from frequent interruptions in order to give the warring parties a chance to express their claims with ease.

Then, I have superb skills pertaining to reframing and summarizing whatever the warring parties have said. Through summary, I am always able to clarify understanding of main concerns, strictly focus on key issues, allow the warring parties to change whatever they previously said and correct disordered statements and assertions. In most cases, I seldom stop summarizing until the respective party agrees with whatever I have noted down. According to Boulle et al (2008), this implies that the party in question agrees to what it has said. Most importantly, it gives the party a chance to undertake reflection and enables me to adjust or clarify interpretations. On the other hand, reframing of statements gives me an opportunity to adjust, reorder or change statements or words in order to clarify their meanings and understand the underlying intentions of the parties.

Also, I have critical thinking skills that are useful for effective interpretation of meanings. McCorkle and Reese (2004) argue that use of reasoning and logic is of paramount importance in any mediation process. This ability has been particularly important in enabling me to evaluate the credibility of alternative conclusions, strategies or solutions that can enhance problem resolution. In addition, it has been useful for enabling me to analyze and interpret the views and perceptions of the warring parties objectively. In this regard, Wilmot and Hocker (2007) assert that objectivity is very important as it eliminates incidences of favoritism that undermine the credibility of the decisions arrived at.

Nonetheless, there are certain negotiation skills that I am not proficient in and which I require further development. At this point, it is worth acknowledging that attainment of negotiation skills is progressive. Individuals wishing to perfect their negotiation skills require a significant period of time as well as sufficient experience. In essence, negotiation is a learning process that requires patience and consistency. One of the fundamental skills that I consider myself to be lacking pertains to memorization. In particular, I am incompetent in remembering information, pictures, words and procedures with utmost clarity. This in some cases makes it difficult to complete the process of mediation within the stipulated time and attain the desirable quality of results.

Then, I also lack sufficient inductive reasoning skills that are imperative for making inferences accordingly. Basically, inductive reasoning empowers a mediator to establish general rules and be able to reach at viable conclusions. Bush and Folger (2004) indicate that mediators with this ability are creative and can establish relationships between events or statements that are unrelated. This ability is also useful in identifying flaws in statements and determining the credibility of assertions that conflicting parties make. This hastens the mediation process as factual information can be easily be filtered from a pool of false or flawed statements. In addition, inductive reasoning enables a mediator to make timely and effective decisions regarding the process. Developing the preceding skills is essential and it would enable me to attain the highest level of competency in mediation.

References

Boulle, L., Colatrella, M. & Picchioni, A. (2008). Mediation: Skills and techniques. New York: LexisNexis

Bush, R. & Folger, J. (2004). The promise of mediation: The transformative approach to conflict. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Cahn, D., & Abigail, R. (2007). Managing conflict through communication. (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

McCorkle, S. & Reese, M. (2004). Mediation theory and practice. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon

Moore, C. (2003). The mediation process: Practical strategies for resolving conflict. (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Wilmot, W., & Hocker, J. (2007). Interpersonal conflict. (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

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Defining Social Conflicts and Complexity of Social Conflics

Defining Social Conflicts and Complexity of Social Conflics

Defining Social Conflicts and Complexity of Social Conflics

Introduction

Social conflicts present an important aspect in sociology, which formulates solutions to various challenges that characterize the human society. To this end, sociology studies have been conducted to provide prescriptions of dealing with social conflicts. In this article, various perspectives of the social conflict topic are discussed as contained in a book chapter and a journal article. Definition of social conflicts and their complexity are approached from different perspectives by different authors and the discussion is concluded with a view of the relevant questions that tie the two together. Since the conflict topic is a huge area that attracts interventions that range from diagnosis of intrapersonal and interpersonal conflicts to resolution, a specific and limited area of interest must be picked at a time for significant contribution to be made.

Kriesberg, Louis., Constructive conflicts: from escalation to resolution. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefied Publishing Group, Inc., 2007. Print

Definition of Social Conflicts

The author of this book dedicates a subtopic on conflicts to the perspective of defining social conflicts, which is an important step in construction of appropriate sociological intervention. As mentioned above, the diagnosis of a conflict must be involved in the design of respective intervention (2). The author clearly diagnoses the existence of a conflict by manifestation of incompatible beliefs between the conflicting individuals. Further clarification of the social conflict involves social environment, number of individuals and the manifestation of the dispute, where the author describes the tensions likely to emerge in the dispute. Perhaps an important element of a conflict definition that the author introduces in the chapter is belief by each party to the conflict that they are facing opposition from the other party. Accordingly, the issue of competition among the individuals or groups of persons involved in the conflict emerges since each side wants to overcome the other’s opposing belief (3).

In this definition, the author clarifies that the involved parties must perceive the dispute as a conflict which finally forces them to create the division in thought and belief. Without the aspect of awareness of opposing perceptions resulting into some form of competition, the author reckons that it is difficult to amount to a social conflict as defined in the text. As an illustration, the author gives an account of people competing for employment, yet due to the lack of focus on each other’s intentions, it cannot be quantified as a social conflict. In order for such a scenario to be raised to a social conflict, the author gives a perspective of divisive thoughts in among the competitors such as discrimination on ethnicity and gender.

An equally important aspect of the definition of social conflict is added in the form of continuity in the conflict. Since the social setting implies continued interactions between the individuals, the author argues that the aspect of disruption of the society by the division brought by the conflict must be felt (3). In order to translate this definition to the wider society challenges of unity, it is important that the definition of the conflict is done before designing conflict resolution that aims at destroying the conflict’s building blocks observed in the definition.

Braun, Andreas., Heinke, Eva-Maria., Neumann, Martin., Saqalli, Mehdi. & Srbljinovic, Armano. “Challenges in Modeling Social Conflicts: Grappling with Polysemy,” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 14.3(2011): 9 ( HYPERLINK “http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/14/3/9.html” http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/14/3/9.html)

Complexity of Social Conflicts

In this journal article that highlights the complexity of defining social conflicts, the authors concur with earlier observations that dealing with conflicts must be informed from the appropriate diagnosis and identification of the challenge. In light of the nature of social challenges facing the society, sociologists must define the conflict within certain standards of conflicts referred to as simulations. Modeling of social conflicts assists sociologists to design interventions and prescribe solutions to resolve the division in the society (para. 1). The authors explain that the simulations classify conflicts on the nature of the complexity, which makes it easy to pick recommended solutions to deal with the problems. As observed in Kriesberg (2), these authors make the observation that definition of the conflict becomes the foundation of the recommended approach to handle the damaging effects of the conflict in the social setting. As a contribution to the definition of the social problem, the authors provide a list of 16 criteria that have been used by social academicians to classify conflicts (para. 9). The classification adds on the perspectives discussed by Kriesberg (2) for the definition of the social conflict.

On the wider concept of violent confrontations witnessed in extreme competition in social conflicts, the authors outline some common features that assist in definition of the conflict. Firstly, some connectivity is witnessed among the conflicting parties, which underpins the social setting of the society that lives together to learn the differences in beliefs. Secondly, the competition resists changes likely to advance the status of the other party usually resulting in a brutal feeling. Thirdly, conflicts are differentiated from ordinary tension due to the level of commitment to sustain the division, which is usually very high in a conflict than an ordinary tension.

Finally, the authors identify the openness of challenging the difference to be present in a social conflict, which makes private and personal conflicts less likely to amount into a social conflict (para. 13). The authors (para. 14) introduce the aspect of rational analysis which explains the motivation of the parties to a conflict to continue holding hard lines in the conflict. There are different reasons why persons end up in a social conflict, which must be defined as clearly as possible to come up with a solution. Complex nature of social conflicts implies that the sociologists must not confine their contribution to one approach when designing solutions (para. 26).

Kriesberg, Louis., Constructive conflicts: from escalation to resolution. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefied Publishing Group, Inc., 2007. Print

Questions on Social Conflicts

Regarding the complexity of the definition of social conflict and the design of solutions to the standoffs, the author provides similar contribution as observed in Braun et al (9). Similarity arises from the fact that the author dedicates an insightful subtopic in chapter 1 by the title “Questions About Social Conflicts” (4). In the text, it is clear that the factors of violent conflicts can be traced back from the interests of the conflicting parties as contained in Braun et al (para. 13). Since the range of social conflicts is very wide in a diverse society, it is important to interrogate various social elements that could be failing in making the society live without extreme conflicts. Among the most questionable areas of the social setting include the integrity of the social policy in use.

Kriesberg outlines the payoff matrix that complicates options of individuals when they consider their own interests rather than their common good in the puzzle (8). The author argues that the complexity of conflicts is defined by the cooperation willingness with which individuals party to a conflict are likely to approach a conflict. International conflicts are also discussed to highlight the need for social conflict resolution mechanisms to be based on a cost-benefit analysis for the overall benefit of the society. In this consideration, the author makes a contribution that concludes that the best approach to solve a conflict is to adopt a wide approach that utilizes more options for a more accurate decision (10).

Works Cited

Braun, Andreas., Heinke, Eva-Maria., Neumann, Martin., Saqalli, Mehdi. & Srbljinovic, Armano. “Challenges in Modeling Social Conflicts: Grappling with Polysemy,” Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, 14.3(2011): 9

Kriesberg, Louis., Constructive conflicts: from escalation to resolution. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefied Publishing Group, Inc., 2007. Print

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Deficit Spending

Deficit Spending

Deficit Spending

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Deficit Spending

Every government in the world needs some financial support in order to carry out its day-to-day activities. The money to help run any government is got from the revenue that the it collects from the public. The revenue can be accrued from taxes that the government has placed on various goods and services or fines imposed on people for various offences. At times, however the revenue collected by the government may not be enough to sustain its operations, thus, forcing the government to borrow money to assist in keeping the government running. The instance in which the government’s expenditure exceeds its revenue is referred to as deficit spending. This paper will look at the advantages, disadvantages, and the crowding out effect of deficit spending (Stähler, 2009).

Advantages of Deficit Spending

The advantages of deficit spending by the government can be seen clearly in two main aspects: during a recession and on investment. When there is an economic downturn, the government might result to borrowing. In that aspect, recession is important in increasing the AD. Deficit spending can also help increase investment. When under provision is experienced in the education or public sector, the government might increase spending in the affected sectors. In so doing, the sectors may experience increased productivity in the future, which might result to higher rate of economic growth (Stähler, 2009).

Disadvantages of Deficit Spending

Deficit spending has various effects some of which include rising costs, investment opportunities, and organizations’ emergencies. We will look at the negative effects of deficit spending in each aspect mentioned above. Although there are some positive effects of deficit spending, the disadvantages are immense some of which are felt long after the deficit spending is over and the debt has been repaid by the government (Stähler, 2009).

Rising Cost

Deficit spending causes a rise in the cost of products available for consumers, whether to an individual or an organization. This is because the government will have to buy almost everything on credit, which means it will have debts. Debts also attract interest that means that all commodities the government purchases will have inflated prices because of the interests charged (Stevens, 2012).

Organizations

At the level of organizations, the effect of deficit spending is clearer. Deficit spending in any organization might make it less appealing to lenders, thus, making such an organization unable to get any financial assistance. Deficit spending can also distort financial ratios such as debt to assets and times interest to earned ratios. Such a situation might make outsiders wary of investing in the organizations bonds. Some of the organizations may as a result close down altogether (Stevens, 2012).

Crowding-out Effect

Crowding out effect is the instance where the interest rates of borrowing rises to an extent those corporations cannot be able to afford. When there is a deficit in the spending ability of the government, it usually turns to financial institutions for financial help. When this happens, most financial institutions increase their lending rates to an extent that it becomes too costly for the corporations to afford, thus, limiting their access to financial help (Stevens, 2012).

Conclusion

Deficit spending is often done when a country experiences instances such as economic recess. Economic recess is only a short time experience, thus, when the government results to deficit spending some negative effects are felt which most of the time do not help in economic growth but in fact hinders economic growth. Deficit spending results in employees layoff as most organizations cannot be able to gain access to any financial help that is crucial to their daily operations.

Reference

HYPERLINK “http://www.bibme.org/” o “Edit this item” Stähler, N. (2009). Taxing Deficits To Restrain Government Spending. Journal of Public Economic Theory, 11(1), 159-176.

HYPERLINK “http://www.bibme.org/” o “Edit this item” Stevens, R. E. (2012). Market Opportunity Analysis Text and Cases.. London: Taylor and Francis.

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Defenses of the career on damage to cargo-Montreal Convention

Defenses of the career on damage to cargo-Montreal Convention

Defenses of the career on damage to cargo-Montreal Convention

Q. 1 what defences is available to a carrier in relation to damage to goods?

Montreal Convention, also known as Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air is a treaty which establishes or unifies rules relating to international carriage of passengers, cargo or baggage by air. Article 18 (1) of this convention stipulates that the career is liable for the loss of or damage to goods that may during the transit by air (The Institute of International Commercial Law, 2010). However, Article 18 (2) provides defenses to the career in certain cases. This section exonerates the career from this liability in the event that the loss or damage occurs as a result of inherent defect, quality or vice of the goods. Secondly, the article stipulates that the career will not be liable if the loss or damage results from defective packing of the goods performed by other individuals other than the career or its agents or servants. In addition, the career will not be liable under the Montreal Convention if loss or damage on cargo resulted from an act of war or an armed conflict.

Q2: What if the goods are damaged as a result of a customs examination – is the carrier liable? If not, why not?

The career will not be liable in the event that damage to goods occur as a result of customs examination. Article 18 (2) (b) of the convention stipulates that the career will not be liable in case destruction, loss or damage to cargo occurs as a result of an act of a public authority during the exit or entry of the cargo (The Institute of International Commercial Law, 2010).

References

The Institute of International Commercial Law, (2010), Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air – Montreal, 28 May 1999, Pace University, White Plains, New York

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Night Summative Assessment Essay Outline

Night Summative Assessment Essay Outline

Night Summative Assessment: Essay Outline

STEP#1:

Choose from ONE of the following to write a fully developed, formal literary analysis essay. Show your choice by highlighting your chosen prompt below and by signing to the academic honesty policy below.

Identify one or more symbols, motifs, OR examples of imagery. What role does it/they play in developing the theme of the work?

Note that you must identify the overall theme of the text in order to answer this prompt.

Use evidence from the text (symbols, motifs, or examples of imagery) to argue the theme.

At the end of the memoir, Wiesel writes of looking in a mirror for the first time since leaving the concentration camp. He writes:

“From the depths of the mirror, a corpse was contemplating me.

The look in his eyes as he gazed at me has never left me” (115).

Why is this an effective ending to the text? How does the ending help emphasize the

theme of the text?

Note that you must identify the overall theme of the text in order to answer this prompt.

Use evidence from the text (the quote above as well as other examples) to argue the theme.

NOTES:

*This entire packet is due on: Thursday, 11/19 or Friday 11/20.

*Because this is the foundation for the rest of the essay, it is imperative that you thoroughly complete the outline. Failure to complete the outline will result in a deduction of 10 points on your final draft.

*Putting in the work on this outline will ultimately allow a more efficient transition into writing the essay!

*Remember to have academic integrity for all parts of the essay, including the outline. Students who choose to plagiarize on the final draft will earn a zero. Please type your name below, acknowledging that you understand this policy:

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Step #2

Planning the Essay:

Topic/motif: literary analysis of the night by Elie Wiesel

Theme (universal message/lesson learned): inhumanity

THE INTRODUCTION

THE INTRO YOUR WORK

HOOK

Grab your audience’s attention with an intriguing or shocking statement, anecdote, analogy, appropriate and fitting question or quote. Elie Wiesel’s “Night” is a short tale describing the most painful time in human history (1941-1945). In it, Elie raises questions and tries to answer them while internally focusing on the current tribulations. Among the concerns discussed are God’s way of dealing with humanity, that a group may be dealt with atrociously. In contrast, the other group is represented by criminals who remain immune from retribution. This is expressed in his statement regarding witnesses who want to testify that they have no right to rob future generations of knowledge about the past. Elie claims that to forget the dead is tantamount to re-enacting their execution. Elie’s faith in the preservation of humanity is solid and is founded upon the deep conviction that the universe is a Supreme power. The human heart remains adamant that the principle of perfect science is vital. Also, he stresses the importance of forgiveness considerably as he is opposed to people who forget about the tragic events to emphasize the theme.

BACKGROUND INFO

Provide your audience with some sentences of background information about your topic. Make this topic relevant and interesting for your audience. Do not overly summarize the text. In short: Think of this as a way to blend your hook with your claim statement. In Night, Elie Wiesel explores how countless religious people were heading to death chambers with hollow faces. He sees the Germans putting the little in nocent children in the gas chambers or sending them to the gallows. The essence of this life on earth and creation was why he took an interest in religious studies and religion. When he reaches the concentration camp, he starts to doubt the presence of God. He also thinks that if such great force existed, God would not allow such occurrences, and he would protect the chosen people. As the internal struggle for the faith continues, he insists that “man is bigger, greater than God.” Indeed, most of the camp’s inmates face the same question of God’s reality. It is evident that every person is questioning the very presence of God, weeping, ‘Where is God? ‘Elie is numb and loses faith in God as he feels he will never believe in God. The theme of faith in God, therefore, also goes along with other thematic ideas like faith.

Claim Statement (Final sentence of intro. paragraph):

In night is used in the book as a metaphor for death, the soul’s darkness, and lack of faith. It comes up repeatedly as an image. And when the scene is set during the day, the night may be invoked. Remember all the horrible things that happen at night: Mrs. Schächter has her dreams of flames, hell, and death; Eliezer and his father arrive at Auschwitz and see the smokestacks and stand in line all night long with the scent of death in their noses; the night the soup tastes like corpses; they walk through long nights and, piled on top of each other, smothering each other to death. As Eliezer himself says, “The days were like nights, and the nights left the dregs of their darkness in our hearts” (7.22). The night is also a metaphor for how the soul was immersed in pain and hopelessness.

Elie offers a comprehensive account of the deplorable conditions faced by refugees who have been imprisoned against their will in the Nazi concentration camp. He vividly recalls the babies’ brutal slaughter that Nazi soldiers threw in the gas chambers and mercilessly murdered. He also does not fail to note the paralyzing terror that hit all the detainees during transfer to another concentration camp. His account of the gruesome changes shows that many prisoners have lost their lives. Elie referred to the mass killing of Jews as a barbaric act that he could not rationalize. In his disillusioned condition, Elie resorted to the sarcasm with which he congratulated Hitler for keeping his pledge to rid Germany of vermin, citizens of Jewish descent (Wiesel 80). Elie found reassurance and comfort in the fact that his dad stayed at his side for years of hard work; however, he struggled to understand why God allowed such inhumanity to endure.

Claim Statement Frames–use these sentence starters to guide your essay focus:

1. In Night, Elie Wiesel applies, argues, describes, explains, explores _________________(Context–MOTIF/SYMBOL/EXAMPLES OF IMAGERY)______________ to support/develop/emphasize the theme _____________________________________.

2. The theme of __________________in Night, by Elie Wiesel, is developed/described/explored through ____________ (context–MOTIF/SYMBOL/EXAMPLES OF IMAGERY)__________________.

THE BODY PARAGRAPHS (x2)

Body Paragraph # 1. Write the paragraph’s main idea. All of the sentences in this paragraph should support this main idea.

Elie responded to Jewish mass murder as a barbarous act he could not rationalize. In his frustrated situation, Elie used the sarcasm with which he thanked Hitler for having retained his undertaking to rid Germany of vermin, Jewish descent people and he was encouraged by the fact that his father had remained with him for years of toil, but struggled to understand why God allowed this inhumanity to persist.

BODY ❡ YOUR WORK

TOPIC SENTENCE Begin with a direct sentence that states the topic of the paragraph.

**This should be an opinion (no “I”!). Elie suggests that people ought to consider negative aspects of the experience to avoid making errors in the present and future. Finally, the last appeal for Elie involves people who would prefer non-violent alternatives to violent explosions leading to death. The security of mankind is unchangeable and is based on a firm conviction that the world is ruling by the Supreme Power. The book material should not be focused on technical study, but is based on memories of experiences and their cognitive assessment (Wiesel) It must be remembered.

BLEND + EXAMPLE Blend your first direct quote. This is also known as “the says” section of an academic Paragraph.

**Use Blending Methods #1-#3. Remember to CITE the quote!

“Quote…” (Wiesel 23). You may refer to Slide Decks 10/1-10/2 and 10/5 – 10/6 to help you review how to blend, quote, and cite properly. At the end of the memoir, Wiesel writes of looking in a mirror for the first time since leaving the concentration camp. He writes:

“From the depths of the mirror, a corpse was contemplating me.

The look in his eyes as he gazed at me has never left me” (115).

Why is this an effective ending to the text? How does the ending help emphasize the theme of the text?

EXPLANATION Explain how your example supports your topic sentence and claim. This is also known as the “means” section. **You may refer to Slide Decks 10/26 – 10/27 to see the student models for our first Academic Paragraph Assignment (from The Kite Runner unit) to help you review how to organize your body paragraphs. With this picture, Wiesel leaves us at the end of his career, and it is a haunting vision in which Wiesel no longer recognizes the individual before him. By identifying himself as a skeleton, Wiesel also reveals that he is living death; merely being alive does not mean that his soul or humanity has survived. That Wiesel separates himself from this corpse is also a strong way to indicate that his conscience did not know this being before him; whatever had happened in the death camps deprived him of his sense of self.

TRANSITION STATEMENT

Transition to your next piece of evidence.

**Consider using one of these TRANSITIONAL PHRASES to the right.

TRANSITIONAL PHRASES:

To compare or link similar ideas: also, moreover, in addition, furthermore, likewise…

To contrast ideas: however, nevertheless, on the other hand, although, conversely, neither…nor, and yet…

To indicate time: meanwhile, eventually, while, ultimately…

To show cause and effect: therefore, as result, thus, unless, in order to…

To add information: moreover, furthermore…

THE CONCLUSION

THE CONCLUSION YOUR WORK

RESTATE THE TOPIC Bring the topic of your paper back to your audience’s attention. Emphasize the importance of this topic. Elie is against people forgetting the horrific events that occurred. Elie argues that people need to consider unpleasant aspects of the experience to avoid making mistakes in the present and future.

RESTATE CLAIM Using different words, restate your claim and your key points (not every point…your MAIN points). This should be a brief summary of what you’ve already written, but written in a fresh and entirely new way. Finally, Elie’s last plea is about people preferring nonviolent solutions over violent outbursts that result in the loss of life. The protection of the human race is unwavering and is founded on a strong belief in the presence of the Supreme Power ruling the universe.

FINAL THOUGHT Provide your audience with a final thought that brings the reader full circle. This can be a call to action, a reference back to something in the introduction, an insight into something larger, or a theme. It should be remembered that books’ content is not focused on technical research; however, it is based on memories of experiences and their cognitive evaluation. He remembered vividly the horrific killing of the babies which Nazi soldiers threw in and mercilessly killed in gas chambers. He also states the paralysing fear that afflicted all the prisoners when they were transferred to another concentration camp. His account of the horrific changes suggests that many inmates have died.

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Night Vision Goggles Fatigue and Decline of Cognitive Levels

Night Vision Goggles Fatigue and Decline of Cognitive Levels

Night Vision Goggles: Fatigue and Decline of Cognitive Levels

Name

Institution

Abstract

In modern combat, the desire to operate at night is paramount because of the heightened enemy prowess against aggressors. As a result, technology has researched on the possibility of developing systems, which would minimize the challenge resulted by night darkness. A common example of this technology is Night Vision Goggles (NVG). However, due to physical and physiological associated with NVG technology, pilots often find piloting a dissatisfying career. This leads to the constant labor mobility as pilots will attempt to live current employment for cognitive backed psychological problems. This research proposal will attempt to prove that NVG primarily causes fatigue and later quality of cognitive judgments required in piloting. The paper is structured into two pain parts and one secondary part. The commencing part one – problem analysis- will analyze the problems associated with NVG technology in piloting. This part will as well analyze the importance this study. The research will also suggest satellite proposition of where future research will focus – scope of the study. The second part – literature review- will examine the relevant literature backing up problems enlisted in the problem statement part. The paper will also provide a recommendation on what should be done to replace NVG technology.

Statement Problem

Night Vision Goggles (NVG) is a successful technology in the military aviation industry. However, its success has several shortcomings which occasion usability problems. Pilots using this technology are accustomed to mental and physical suffering. Occasional inabilities triggered by poor working environment naturally demoralizes the pilot. As a result, loss of manpower technically results to high financial cost for the aircraft investment (Harrison et al, 2010). However, the central concern of this research is the quality of cognitive judgments processed by pilots. In piloting, coherent judgments are imperative; thus, ineffective judgments resulted from poor syntax construction is primarily a demerit in the in controlling an aircraft. Fatigue in the airline industry is caused by a plethora of factors. Firstly, night vision goggles are bulky, and they are mounted on an equally bulky helmet (McLean, 1999). As a result, the pilot is forced to continously support the weight for hours. Excessive supported weight is a potential cause factor of the neck and back pain. Further to this, Parush et al (2011) establishes that Pilots are required to work in demanding situations.

Environmental factors; which are aided by use of night vision goggles forms a significant muse in factors leading to increased fatigue levels. These are aspects related to terrain, weather, lighting and climate. So to it, the Pilot is expected to respond to challenging physiological and physical demands with outmost accuracy. Davis, Johnson & Stepaneck (2008, p. 358), establishes that the technical complexity of NVG goggles combined with a demanding working environment naturally overpowers what a moderate human can accommodate. Not to mention that piloting is also challenged by gravity problems. Federal Aviation Administration (2011, p. 5) establishes that a pilot nervous system is subject to push-pull factors of gravity. Physiologically, when a pilot tilts his or her head, the weight of these crystals causes this membrane to shirt due to gravity and sensory hairs which detect the shit. Therefore, the combined challenges in piloting primarily leads to heightened fatigue levels.

Significance of this study

Training pilots is an expensive initiative that requires time, financial and capital resource mobilization. The clinical problems established in the above description are potent factors that explain the high labor mobility in the airline industry (Parush et al, 2011). The purpose of this research is to establish factors leading to fatigue levels, and how they impact on the airline industry cognitive requirements, standards and thresholds. The research will analyze relevant research in medical and labor field. Central objectives include; the development of quantifiable physiological research relating to fatigue and cognitive factors. Secondly, the information generated from this research will be applied diagnosis of fatigue instigators and how these factors can be managed by future industrial standards

Scope of the study (Future detailed research)

The upcoming research will collect data from pilots, psychologists, and human resource managers. Research question will be oriented to ensure that respondents offer vital information based on real live experiences. In particular, research questions will inherently seek to investigate the relationship between fatigue and cognitive levels. This research is timely challenged by the absence of aviation engineers. The researcher has not yet identified sources from this field. Primarily, aviation engineers are the nucleus behind the development of cockpit technologies. Lack of no data from this group will impact heavily on this research constraining it from achieving reliable results.

Research questions

Q1. To what degree are pilots’ comfortable piloting as a career?

Q2. To what extent do rising fatigue levels impact on cognitive levels of a pilot?

Q3. To what extent do narrowing cognitive discourage the pilot from engaging in piloting as a career?

Literature Review

Introduction

A night vision goggle is an electronically powered optical device that allows images to be produced at a given level of light in total darkness. Although night vision goggles have been used in military and other law enforcement agencies, the aviation industry is increasing adapting their usage. This is based on the knowledge that; in the blink of the night, lighting becomes necessary. In the aviation field, the most use night vision goggles are panoramic night vision goggles. These are superior devices using close to 20mm image intensifier tubes.

History of night vision goggles in Aviation

In July 1972, the U.S Army Combat Development Experimentation Command (USACDEC) validated a series helicopter clear Night Defense Experiments. The experiments focused on how trainees could respond at the blink of the night. During the Cold war era, the necessity to conduct night attacks was paramount based on the knowledge enemies were constantly orienting parallel and vicious technologies. In a military briefing in late 1975, it was accessed that implication of Middle East War on U.S could be overrun if the military adopted night operations. Night vision is developed from three primary technologies. Firstly, the Active illumination works in principle of coupling intensification technology. This technology uses two methods, shortwave infrared (SWIR) band and near infrared (NIR). The second technology and the most used in aviation is image intensification. The underlying principle behind this technology is its ability magnify the amount of protons received from various sources. Thirdly, the thermal imaging technology operates by detecting the temperate differences forecasted on the background of the objects. In February 1976, the military fully acknowledged the integration of night vision helmets in aiding night missions. This was backed by the publication of Training Circular (TC) 1-28 Rotary Wing Flight.

Impact of night vision goggles in piloting

Following the 1976 publication, several companies began pursuing technologies that will boost night vision devices. Currently, night vision devices are constructed of anodized aircraft aluminum. The helmet is designed to respond to demanding ergonomic requirements (Harrison et al, 2010). Key considerations are proper respiration process and response to bodily discharges. The helmets are suited with up to 25mm optical display. Primarily, the NVG tube receives behind the objective lens propels light from a wide range in the spectrum of the deep red area. The tube is suited with phosphor screen; which is viewed through an eyepiece lens (McLean, 1999). This screen enables a magnification of +2 to -6 diopter adjustment, with an eye relief of 14mm at 25mm distance. Most of these devices are powered by the docking deck situated in the airplane cockpit. This features makes it possible for night vision goggles to gain popularity in the aviation industry

Configuration

The ocular configuration; which determines the nature of the NVG is adjusted differently to meet the demands of a given environment. Primarily, there are three main components in NVG technology. This are monocular NVG configuration. This configuration has components has a single objective lens, as well as a single amplifying tube in a single eyepiece. This device can only be used by one eye. The biocular NVG configuration has a single objective lens in a single tube, but two ear pieces. The two eyes are intensified in one single tube. The binocular device right hand image has two objective lenses, and two intensifying tubes. The configuration tube has an upper hand since it has two separate intensified images from two separate viewpoints. The depth perception in enhanced with contrast, expansion and detection (Chen et al, 2011)

How Night Vision goggle works

NVG device in war aircrafts and helicopters enables pilots to fly in enemy zones secretly and at night. The NVG projects ambient light; which is distributed within the device tunnel. The head worn device have various electrical and mechanical processes. The device infrared ability collects any available amount of light including the lower light spectrum and amplify it to enable the user to see vivid images. To accomplish this, the device applies thermal imaging technology which captures the upper part of infrared light spectrum. Thermal imaging light is emitted to all objects view. The light is duplicated to phased array system detector. Light at this stage is detailed in a pattern known as thermogram. The thermogram pattern duplicate image into electric impulses. The impulses are sent to a signal processing board, a dedicated chip that translates information into data display. The signal processing unit sends images in various color, after which the infrared filters excessive colors (Parush, 2011). Although the NVG is a great night viewing device, it is prudent to note that the process involved in image processing deter the quality of the image. In most case, pilots will often struggle to view all details provided in the NVG display.

Issues:

Navigation risk

Piloting, especially in field combat is a demanding task that requires considerate physical movements. The pilot mounted with the NVG visualizer requires the constant view the environment surrounding him. Failure of proper visualization may result to accidents. In fact, according to Rash et al. (2009) the number of accidents involved in military flights are primarily caused by poor visualization. Also, there has been issues related to lack of proper orientation to the technologies. Of recent, there have been many vendors of night vision goggles. Most vendors have customized feature with intent to outcompete their competitors. As a result, the devices do not meet similar industrial standards. For instance, a pilot could previously be using a narrow FOV. Traditionally, this device was designed to have a lower peripheral vision. This may result to increased spatial disorientation. However, in a different mission, the pilot may be using a larger FOV grounded on demands of that mission. Based on this, pilots find it hard to meet demands of a device with a higher peripheral vision. This not only puts not only causes anxiety/ fatigue to the pilot, but also exposes the pilot on the risk of accidents.

Posture problems

The configuration aspect has a different impact in how it impact on human physiological functions. This is based on the fact of additional weight and luminance additional weight. This is based on how the NVGs impact on neck strains, injuries and headaches. Firstly, the physical aspect of mounting is inefficient and creates an uncomfortable piloting manner. The physical issues related to the user are anthropometry and inadequacy of navigation space. This is based on the fact that piloting requires sudden and agile moves. As a result, weight and configuration problems resulted by mounted equipment are primarily responsible for the creation of instability; thus, resulting to gross neck and muscle strain leading to fatigue problems. Pervasive head, neck and spine injuries are responsible for crash (Falla, 2004). In any case, the device weight and the changing center of gravity does not correlate positively with human physiological functions. The pilot will be forced to spend more energy in trying to balance the device demanding weight problems than concentrating on field activities.

Neurotransmission ProblemsConstant exposure to these working conditions (head, neck and spine injuries) prompts the development of central nervous breakdown and development of chronic of headaches (Davies, 2008). Headaches are common complaints of pilots navigating in demanding situations. This is linked to visual difficulties, flight neck discomforts and constrained lighting amongst long working hours in complex computer cock-pits trigger headache on several accounts (Falla, 2004). Also, the combined effect of headaches, nervous and sight breakdowns is the primary cause of bone fractures. The dysfunction associated bone fractures is constant fatigue and general disorientation.

Body vibration and gravity

A moving helicopter vibrates heavily impacting negatively on the human seated vertically on a cockpit. Vibration can be a measure on the scale of principle harmonic frequency of 5Hz. Heavy vibration induced constraints energy transfer resulting the standard frequency to 4.5 Hz (Chen et al, 2007). Vibration causes the pilot to suffer Z axis displacement. Z axis displacements are emitted from the floor of the aircraft this is caused by vibration transmission emitted from the buttocks of a vertically seated individual. In any event, most body parts are engaged either hand, legs, buttocks, head, and back. However, the neck, which is supporting the head, is not engaged to anything. As a result, the neck experiences severe vibration. Naturally, the neck is configured to support any vibrations frequencies, a good example being running (Patricia, 2010). Nonetheless, the neck is constrained severe if it has additional weight to support. Vibration, vertical seating problems and long working hours are the primary cause factors of spine problems. In fact, neck induced vibrations is primary responsible for the development of the neck and back muscle fatigue (Chen et al, 2007). Constrained neck and back impairs the brain central processing functions forcing the pilot to develop severe vision problems (Gallagher, 2008)

Cognitive Risk

Chronic mental problems caused by fatigue are a result of impaired judgment. Pilots exposed to these conditions are in a greater risk of suffering from greater myoelectric manifestations. Muscle fatigue and relative neck pain controls resulted negatively on the slope. This is based on the knowledge that EMG frequency has outcompeted by demanding neuron-functions. Also, constant neck pain prompts disturbances in cognitive judgments. Impairments of muscles, heightened abrupt activities, respiratory problems and constrained visions impact heavily on the quality of syntax required to process a given activity. Research has established that pilots working in demanding condition not only suffer a mental breakdown while at work, but socially (Falla, 2004). Technically, constant neck pain demands increased muscular and electrical activity. In any event, the body requires to produce equivalent to combat rising demands, of visions, gravity and posture problems. However, the body spends more concentration in responding to weight problems constraining the neck. Constant exposure to neck problems forces the pilot to develop lower output of neuron-functions. The pilot not only suffers mild and temporary fatigue, but the breakdown of neuron-process. The pilot seem to forget basic things because of deeply drenched fatigue problems. In addition, the pilot may develop chronic physical problems as a result of declined cognitive levels (Falla, 2004).

Career dissatisfaction

While it is common knowledge that piloting is a great career, this notion is contested by the development challenging mental conditions. Piloting involves the ability of the pilot to think and act in demanding situations. Again, the notion of inefficiencies, primarily caused by neck problems often results to the development of anxiety and anger. Research has endeavored to relate air crashes to the development of mal-functionality of the pilot. A pilot in a combat mission takes a lot of time in preparation than initially considered by industry developers. Pilot preparation can take up to 30 percent of total productive time (Parush, 2011). In the combat situation, the pilot is expected to work in demanding situations; for instance, responding to multiple enemy threats (Patricia, 2010). Demanding combat environment often results to questions on inefficiency. The pilot is under evaluation that severally lives depends on the decision he or she makes. Also, the pilot could be suffering from psychological factors aside physiological and physical constraints. The in a remote combat mission, in most cases thousands of kilometers from home could be thinking about his family or any interpersonal relationships. This crops in inefficiencies of good judgments, and in any case, constrained judgments further accelerates fatigue levels. As a result, the pilot might consider piloting an unprofitable venture, and in most cases the pilot might live a demanding military aviation career to take light jobs in other airline fields.

Recommendation

This research document has accessed several implications Night Vision goggles in leading to the development of fatigue problems. The report has expressed high dissatisfactions in applying the NVG systems in a demanding combat environment. However, there are several remedies to manage NVG constraints. Research has established that NVG primary function is providing visionary light in dark environments. The goal is to make sure that night mission are tackled with minimized risk of notability. So to it, this research document proposes the application of night vision devices on the aircraft itself. Night vision devices mounted on the aircraft can be aided by computers affixed on the aircraft deck. The pilot will be monitoring night vision by viewing the computer strategically situated on the aircraft cockpit. This will salvage the pilot from having to carry a heavier device. Secondly, the pilot will have the privilege to use normal night light or night vision powered light at ease. As a result, the pilot will not have mounted device on his head. This not only reduced visionary problems but as well minimized neck problems, fatigue and career dissatisfaction. This research proposal also recommends further research in the field of piloting-neuroscience/ psychology and labor mobility factors in the upcoming research document.

Conclusion

This research document has established the various challenges accustomed to using Night Vision goggles in a demanding enemy combat environment. The document has established NVG as the primary cause factor of fatigue which leads to career dissatisfaction. In particular, the document has established the interrelation between physical, physiological (both combined results fatigue) and psychological factors leads to career dissatisfaction. The document has encapsulated by offering a recommendation. The recommendation has reinstated the necessity of mounting night vision devices on the aircraft as compared to being mounted on the human head.

References

Chen Y, Wickramasinghe V and Zimcik D. (2007). Adaptive mount approaches for helicopter

seat vibration control. In: Proceedings of ICAST 17 (4) 211-241

Davis, J., Johnson, R., & Stepaneck, J. (2008). Fundamentals of Aerospace Medicine. New

York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Falla DL, Jull GA and Hodges PW. (2004). Patients with neck pain demonstrate reduced

electromyography activity of the deep cervical flexor muscles during performance of the

craniocervical flexion test. Spine. 29: 2108‐2114.

Federal Aviation Administration. (2011). Glider Flying Handbook. JL Aviation LLC.

Gallagher HL, Caldwell EE, Albery C and Pellettiere J. (2008).Neck muscle fatigue resulting

from prolonged wear of weighted helmets. Aviat Space Environ Med 78 (2): 233.

Harrison, M. F., Neary, J. P., Albert, W. J., McKenzie, N. P., Veillette, D. W., & Croll, J. C.

(2010). Cytochrome oxidase changes in trapezius muscles with night vision goggle

usage. International Journal of Industria Ergonomics, 40, 140–145.

McLean, W. E. (1999). Optical designs. In C. E. Rash Helmet-mounted displays: Design issues

for rotarywing aircraft (pp. 51–73). Bellingham, WA: SPIE–The International Society

for Optical Engineering.

Parush, A., Gauthier, M., Arseneau, L., & Tang, D. (2011). The Human Factors of Night Vision

Goggles Perceptual, Cognitive, and Physical Factors 7(1) 238-278.

Patricia, D. (2010). Critique of “Distance Estimation with Night Vision Goggles: A Little

Feedback Goes a Long Way” Human Factors 41 (3) 2.

Williams, J. (2005). A History of Army Aviation: From Its Beginnings to the War on Terror. New

York: iUniverse.

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No Consideration Of Marriage Can Avoid A Discussion Of Gender Issues

No Consideration Of Marriage Can Avoid A Discussion Of Gender Issues

No Consideration Of Marriage Can Avoid A Discussion Of Gender Issues

Contents

TOC o “1-3” h z u Various reasons for marriage PAGEREF _Toc379203577 h 2Marriage in the Victorian age PAGEREF _Toc379203578 h 3Marriage in a modern society PAGEREF _Toc379203579 h 4Same sex marriages PAGEREF _Toc379203580 h 5Marriage in a polygamous setting PAGEREF _Toc379203581 h 6

Marriage is the union between man and woman that is solemnized by members of the community and blessed by God. This is the definition of marriage that the founding fathers are raised by and thus practiced (Lewellen, p. 152). The present definition differs from the former due to the change in cultural aspects of the society. The society continues to change on a daily basis due to the high rate of globalization across the communities. Globalization increases the rate of interaction thus exposing individuals to a different sort of cultural practice. Culture is a way of life; each person belongs to a particular culture that acts as a source of identity (Haviland and Haviland, p. 105). Culture determines the way they approach and perceive different situations. One of the most essential cultural aspects is the right of passage from singlehood to marriage hood. All the cultures around the world embrace this process due to its significance in the sustainability of the society. All cultures view marriage as an essential aspect of life. These same cultures however, have different reasons for marriage. The relationship between two parties involves a set of rules that are ideal for the survival of the marriage. This creates the need for social roles that define the role of both individuals. There are different types of marriages which are brought about by the different cultures in the society. These marriages have different rules that dictate on the way members of the community should behave. Despite the different rules that the marriages have, one factor that they have in common is that they all cannot avoid a discussion on gender issues (Ferraro and Andreatta, p. 341).

The focus of this paper is to present an analysis of gender issues in marriage. There are different types of marriages that are a direct result of the cultures that people belong. The paper seeks to provide an opinion on the notion that states that “No consideration of marriage can avoid a discussion of gender issues”. These arguments will be supported by selected ethnographic illustrations to support the research.

Various reasons for marriage As stated earlier, different cultures have their own definition and perspective of marriage. These cultures dictate on the rules of marriage thus providing the basis upon which marriages are formed. There are different reasons that make a couple choose to get married. One of the reasons people get married is to produce offspring’s. The society requires the reproduction between man and woman for its sustainability. If a society has a low birth rate, it faces the risk of having a diminishing population (Sweetman, p. 351). Any community has to ensure that their population maintains the normal average so that their offspring’s can inherit the community in the future. Another reason that people choose to get married is to have companionship. Companionship is essential for the health an individual. A person is likely to live for a longer time when they are in a relationship compared to a person who is not. This is one of the modern approaches to marriage. Some people opt not to have children due to the fact that it is not priority in their marriage. Some choose to get marriage due to their need to be elevated in their social status. This can be classified as a marriage of convenience. These types of marriages are influenced by political social and economic aspects of a society (Lewellen, p. 122). These marriages were commonly practiced in the ancient times. An example of the modern application of this marriage is the marriage for citizenship.

It has been established that there are various reasons that individuals choose to get married. The formation of a union however, has some principles that the couple has to follow in order for the marriage to work. Social roles are an arrangement that have been put in place from the ancient days to present day. The traditional social roles are defined by the division of labor between male and female. Traditionally, the man is supposed to go into the world and fend for his family. This leaves the woman with the responsibility of child bearing and raising the family. The introduction of education changed the dynamics of the society. As women were exposed to different ideologies and principles, they began to identify with the notion of independence. This disrupted the social arrangement in that women no longer place marriage as the main priority in their life (Dumont and Robert, p.107).

Marriage in the Victorian age The Victorian age is one of the periods that comprises of the mid ancient civilizations. During this time, the cultural norms are traditional in nature. There is a distinct difference in the role of both men and women. Men have the role of being the breadwinner in the family. The rest of the family is thus depending on the male for financial related issues. Women on the other hand are expected to get married and have a family of their own. This is a defining moment in a woman’s life in that it is the only achievement expected of her. The role of a woman consists of bearing children and raising the family (Coontz, p. 128). Women are thus not expected to be ambitious in all areas financial due to the reliance on their husbands. This practice is reflective of the way that children are raised in this society. Children are supposed to behave a certain way so that they can channel their male and female counterparts. Boys are thus expected to concentrate on education in preparation of the future of their family. Girls on the other hand, learn how to be the perfect home makers. This involves learning how to keep a home by taking care of their younger siblings. The different allocation of roles is essential for this type of society in that these cultural aspects are normal to the society. The observing this type of society shows the traditional form of marriage that is practiced in different parts of the world at this period (McLean and Hurd, p. 362).

Marriage in a modern society The modern arrangement of marriage consists of marriages that are practiced in the modern setting of the society. The world is prone to change due to the introduction of different ideologies. One of the areas that have been affected due to change in the societal situations is the institution of marriage. The switch from the agrarian to the industrial revolution changed the way in which the society interacted. During the world wars, men were expected to live their homes so that they could defend their country (Haviland and Haviland p. 245).This left a vacuum in the family in that the female took the role of the breadwinner. Women realized that they can perform the same jobs as their male counterparts. This is a significant part of the country’s history in that the change in social roles influences the argument for equal education. The emphasis of education gave rise to the demand for equal treatment in all aspects of life. The rise of feminism is a significant determinant of the modern family setting (Koktvedgaard, p.278).

Women now have access to the same level of education as men. This means that they do not place priority on starting a family as opposed to the Victorian days. The rise of feminism and the demand for equal treatment between both men and women is a monumental time for women in the current society. This however, affects the natural arrangement of the family setting. One of the most challenging times of the life of a woman is deciding the route to take in terms of career or marriage. This factor affects women more than men in that the majority of the women aspire to have a career and a family. It is difficult to avoid the issue of gender roles. Both the man and the woman are expected to get a job when they complete their studies making it difficult for a couple to raise a family (Hirsch and Wardlow, p. 89). The attempt to create equal opportunities has been established in regard to financial, economic and political areas. The changes however do not dictate the natural order that gives women the opportunity to bear children. A family thus has to discuss gender roles due to the need to balance between work and raising a family. Some mothers have chosen to go back to the traditional ways by choosing family over career. This shows that there is no way around this issue in any marital arrangement (Dumont and Robert, p.147).

Same sex marriages One of the latest forms of marriage that directly results from the change in society is the same sex marriage. Same sex marriage is the marriage between two people who are the same sex. The fight for same sex marriage has reached its peak in that affected persons and their supporters are demanding of more rights. More states are demanding the right to get married to their partners. This privileged is reserved for couples who are heterosexual. The observation of a same sex marriage situation is ideal to indicate that no consideration of marriage can avoid the discussion of gender roles. This is a different condition in that a lesbian couple does not have a male present vice versa (Croll, p. 261). One of the first gender issues that such a couple face the inability to get an offspring amongst each other. If the couple is lucky enough to get a donor, one of the two have to decide who takes the role of the nurturer and the role of the father figure. The couple cannot ignore this situation in that it is natural for a child to demand the presence of both a male and female figure. Another situation that places challenges for the couple in terms of gender roles is the discussion of finances. A couple can choose to both pursue their career and take a back seat for the sake of the children. This type of arrangement indicates the level of masculinity and femininity that is present in both male and female (James and Garrick, p. 452).

Marriage in a polygamous setting Another form of marriage that is present to date is the practice of polygamy. Polygamy is the marriage of one man to more than one woman vice versa. This type of marital arrangement is practiced all over the globe including the United States. Polygamy is different from the rest if the marriages in that more than one relationship are involved. This is a unique example in that it emphasizes the diversity of marriages that exist. Polygamy is not so common in the United States. This makes the society stigmatized when the thought of the ideology is mentioned (Cahill, p. 126).

One of the basic principles of polygamy is the acknowledgment of the supreme head of the family. This person can be male or female depending on the polygamous person in each case. The society is however more exposed to polygamous men as opposed to women. People who practice polygamy recognize the divisions of roles in the family. The man in this case has a lot of authority due to the fact that he is married to more than one person. Most of the cultural practices of polygamous individuals lean towards the traditional marriage setting. The women are expected to procreate so as to increase the number of the members of the family. This thus makes procreation one of the basic principles of polygamy. The gender issues in this case are highly questionable. Women in this type of arrangement are said to be at a disadvantage because of a number of issues (Coontz, p. 98).

One of the issues is the fact that two or more women are forced to share one man vice versa. This limits the level of companionship making the women get less attention compared to man. The man on the other hand experiences all the perks in that he receives an immense amount of attention from each wife. One of the strains of the polygamous marriage to the male is the financial strain that he experiences as a result of maintaining more than one household (Ablow, p. 235).

In conclusion, gender issues account for a significant portion of a human beings life. People are either born male or female in most cases. Both sexes have body parts, genes and hormones that establish how they conduct themselves in the surrounding environment. One of the unions that showcase the gender issues in the society is marriage. Marriage creates a bond between the parties involves in the union. Different marriages face a number of gender related issues depending on the culture that identify themselves. The gender issues vary making some marriages face more issues compared to others. Marriages are traditionally not supposed to be broken. One of the reasons that lead to the increasing number of divorces across the globe are gender related issues. It is thus essential to analyze these issues so as to create an environment that is not ignorant of this matter. Increased awareness of these factors improves the situation in all types of marital unions. This in turn, reduces the rate of divorce that the society has become accustomed to as a result of ignorance in the society.

Works cited

Ablow, Rachel. The Marriage of Minds: Reading Sympathy in the Victorian Marriage Plot. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press, 2007. Print.

Cahill, Sean. Same-sex Marriage in the United States: Focus on the Facts. Lanham [u.a.: Lexington Books, 2004. Print.

Coontz, Stephanie. Marriage, a History: From Obedience to Intimacy or How Love Conquered Marriage. New York: Viking, 2005. Print.

Croll, Elisabeth. The Politics of Marriage in Contemporary China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.

Dumont, Louis, and Robert Parkin. An Introduction to Two Theories of Social Anthropology: Descent Groups and Marriage Alliance. New York [u.a.: Berghahn Books, 2006. Print.

Ferraro, Gary P, and Susan Andreatta. Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2010. Print.

Hirsch, Jennifer S, and Holly Wardlow. Modern Loves: The Anthropology of Romantic Courtship and Companionate Marriage. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan press, 2006. Print.

Haviland, William A, and William A. Haviland. Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

Haviland, William A, and William A. Haviland. Evolution and Prehistory: The Human Challenge. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsword, 2008. Print.

Koktvedgaard, Zeitzen M. Polygamy: A Cross-Cultural Analysis. Oxford [etc.: Berg, 2008. Print.

Lewellen, Ted C. The Anthropology of Globalization: Cultural Anthropology Enters the 21st Century. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Bergin & Garvey, 2002. Print.

McLean, Daniel D, and Amy R. Hurd. Kraus’ Recreation and Leisure in Modern Society. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2011. Print.

Meade, Teresa A, and Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks. A Companion to Gender History. Malden [u.a.: Blackwell, 2006. Print.

Peoples, James G, and Garrick A. Bailey. Humanity: An Introduction to Cultural Anthropology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2012. Print.

Sweetman, Caroline. Gender, Development and Marriage. Oxford: Oxfam GB, 2003. Print.

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Nietzsche vs. Hobbes

Nietzsche vs. Hobbes

Nietzsche vs. Hobbes

ANDREW LANGILLE GRADE 13 PHILOSOPHY COURSE, How are the philosophies of Nietzsche and Hobbes different on topics of Christianity, Human Nature, and Morality. The philosophies of Nietzsche and Hobbes are radically different, Hobbes philosophy is dominated by loyalty to the crown, riddled with references to the Christian scriptures, and a belief that life is nasty, brutish, and short (Leviathan, 133); while Nietzsche s philosophy was dominated by the pessimistic Schopenhauer, a belief that the human race was a herd, and that God is dead (Thus Spoke Zarathustra, S. 13). Hobbes and Nietzsche look at the world completely differently. Hobbes was a Christian who defended the bible, while Nietzsche called Christianity the one great curse (The Anti-Christ, s. 62). On the topic of human nature Hobbes thought life to be aware…of every man, against every man (Leviathan, 232) while Nietzsche took a nihilistic approach and declared that human nature is just a euphemism for inertia, cultural conditioning, and what we are before we make something of ourselves… (Human, all too human, 67). On morality these two philosophers have opposing views, Hobbes views on morality were straight out of Exodus, while Nietzsche holds that morality is a hindrance to the development of new and better customs: it makes stupid [people] (Daybreak, s. 19). These two philosophers lived at different times, in different locations, and their differing philosophies reflect the lives that they lived. Thomas Hobbes was born into an English upper class family in 1588, his father was the parish priest. Thomas was educated by his uncle until he was fifteen, when he was sent to Oxford to continue his studies. In 1608 he finished his formal education and took up with the son of Lord Cavendish, they undertook an adventure which saw them travel across Europe. Hobbes remained in England until the start of the English civil war when he fled to France. The civil war took place from 1642 till 1649, this conflict had a profound effect on Hobbes, particularly the execution of Charles I in 1649. All his writings after this event reflect Hobbes quest to find a peaceful, stable form of government. Hobbes died in 1679. Fredrich Nietzsche was born into an upper class family in Germany, on 15 October 1844, his father was tutor for the royal family and also a priest. Nietzsche father died when he was twelve, this had life-long impact on him. At age eight-teen he discovered the philosopher Schopenhauer, the basis for much of his early work, and gave up Christianity. He was educated at the University of Bonn, at the age of twenty-five Nietzsche was appointed Professor of Philosophy at the University of Basle. He became close friends with composer Richard Wanger, whose work he enthusiastically supported. Nietzsche most productive years were to be his last, he drove insane by syphilis and died at the dawn of this century. Nietzsche declared in that modern Christian civilization is sick and must be overcome (The Anti-Christ, 156), Hobbes would have found that excerpt to be repugnant having declared that God…when he speaks to any subject…he ought to be obeyed (Leviathan, 492). Hobbes was a Christian, while Nietzsche was an atheist, their views on Christianity are completely opposite. Nietzsche held the belief throughout his life that Christianity has taken the side of everything weak, base, ill-constituted, it has made an ideal out of opposition to the preservative instincts of a strong life; it has depraved the reason even of the intellectually strongest natures by teaching men to feel the supreme values of intellectuality as sinful, as misleading, as temptations, (The Anti-Christ, S. 5) Professor Howard Rainer of Davis University states that Nietzsche was uncompromisingly anti-Christian, for Christianity was the most potent force against those values which he prized most highly. Nietzsche felt that Christianity would hinder the emergence of the overman (The Will to Power, 546), a human being that follows their own path and not the herd s. Hobbes while being a Christian to the end, had a rather pessimistic view of it; Professor Ian Johnston of Malaspina University states that Hobbes believed the public religion of the artificial state must serve the need for security to protect the selfish economic interests of the individuals composing it. Hobbes view of Christianity was quite radical for his time and he publicly scorned for his belief that Christendom was nothing more economic security blanket; Hobbes attacked the elements in the Christian church which profited from religion. The times in which Hobbes and Nietzsche lived in were very different, in Hobbes times deadly religious wars were fought across the European continent. It was in this climate the Thomas Hobbes proposed… [his] philosophy. (Howard Rainer, Lecture Notes) Nietzsche did not have to worry about being hunted as a heretic if his ideas were not like by members of the Christian community, Hobbes did. Hobbes makes references to the scripture quite frequently in his works, he uses them to strengthen his ideas surrounding philosophy; Nietzsche never quotes from the Bible but he make many references to the parables of Jesus, he uses these in his critiques on modern Christianity. Hobbes and Nietzsche views on Christianity could never be reconciled, Hobbes died a Christian, while Nietzsche is reputed as saying let me go to my grave a honest pagan. Both Nietzsche and Hobbes share a pessimistic view of human nature, Hobbes asserted that life was nasty, brutish, and short (Leviathan, 278) while Nietzsche believed that human nature was akin to that of an animal herd. Professor Howard Rainer of Davis University states that Nietzsche thought that human nature was nothing more than cultural conditioning on a mass scale. Nietzsche and Hobbes both shared the view that human nature changed depending on the situations a person found themselves in. Hobbes ideas on human nature were gloomy, in Leviathan Hobbes states in the nature of man, we find three principals causes of quarrel. First, Competition; Secondly, Diffidence; Thirdly, Glory. The first, maketh men invade for Gain; the second for Safety; and the third, for Reputation. (Leviathan, 345) Most of Hobbes ideas were born out of his experience with the English Civil War, Hobbes; attitude toward man, whom he considered a wicked animal, knowing no restraint to his passions, was, doubtlessly formulated in England during the turbulent years of the Revolution. (Ethics:Origins and Development, 172). Nietzsche thoughts on human nature are revealed in this quote: It is not things, but opinions about things that have absolutely no existence, which have so deranged mankind! (Daybreak, s. 563) Nietzsche held the belief that man had no such thing as human nature to battle against, his belief that the idea of human nature was fictitious creation of past philosophers who sought to explain life. Nietzsche advanced the opinion that mankind has a Herd mentality [that] overcomes master morality by making all the noble qualities appear to be vices and all weak qualities appear to be virtues. Mediocre values are the values of the herd. (Helen Grayman, Lecture Notes). Nietzsche s writings on human nature, for the most part are an attack on the herd mentality, which he holds great contempt for. Nietzsche put forth this idea our entire sociology simply does not know any other instinct than that of the herd, i.e., that of the sum of zeros-where every zero has equal rights, where it is virtuous to be zero. (The Will to Power, 33) Nietzsche believes that not mankind but overman is the goal! (The Will to Power, 519 ), this means that the goal of the human race, in Nietzsche s mind, should be the development of a class of human beings that is not part of the herd, which hinders mankind s development. Both Hobbes and Nietzsche s views on human nature were misanthropic, Nietzsche held the belief that mankind was nothing more than a herd, and Hobbes views on human nature can be summed up wonderfully with three words: competition, diffidence, and glory. Hobbes and Nietzsche have differing opinions on morality, Hobbes adhered to the Christian mores during his time, Nietzsche would have found this funny because he was an atheist and also because he did not believe in any moral code. Nietzsche thought Morality makes stupid. — Custom represents the experiences of men of earlier times as to what they supposed useful and harmful – but the sense for custom (morality) applies, not to these experiences as such, but to the age, the sanctity, the indiscussability of the custom. And so this feeling is a hindrance to the acquisition of new experiences and the correction of customs: that is to say, morality is a hindrance to the development of new and better customs: it makes stupid. (Daybreak,s. 19), he believed that morality prevents people from reaching their full potential in life, he uses the example of the head mentality to show how people are controlled by their morals. Nietzsche believed that morals are one of the root problems of society, Howard Rainer of Davis University states Nietzsche felt morals destroyed the basic framework of society. Hobbes view on morals was affected by his fanatical belief in Christianity, he basically referred back to the scriptures for all his idea on morality; his greatest source for ideas on morality was the Book of Exodus. Many of Hobbes ideas concerning morality have their base in the Bible, which he constantly refers to in his works. (Howard Rainer, Lecture Notes) Hobbes defends Christian morality in Leviathan, he believes that only a society with a strong moral base is capable of keeping the wicked nature of man in check. Hobbes was also a hypocrite, he believed that a King could violate God s laws if they were in the best interests of the state. Hobbes maintained that everything must be done to protect the commonwealth, even morals could be tossed aside for the advancement of the commonwealth. Nietzsche believed that Because we have for millennia made moral, aesthetic, religious demands on the world, looked upon it with blind desire, passion or fear, and abandoned ourselves to the bad habits of illogical thinking, this world has gradually become so marvelously variegated, frightful, meaningful, soulful, it has acquired color – but we have been the colorists: it is the human intellect that has made appearances appear and transported its erroneous basic conceptions into things. (Human, all too Human, s.16) these morals compounded themselves over the centuries making errors seem like truths, Nietzsche was against these commonplace errors in our societies morals. Hobbes and Nietzsche have absolutely nothing similar in the realm of morals. The beliefs of Hobbes and Nietzsche contradict each other at every available opportunity, their philosophies are totally different on almost every level. Nietzsche has a hatred of Christianity which is unsurpassed, he believed that Christianity was one of the leading reasons for a herd mentality in society; Hobbes embrace Christianity and uses the scriptures as one of his main sources of inspiration. Only on the topic of human nature do Hobbes and Nietzsche ideas come closer together, both of these philosopher held a pessimistic view of human nature; Hobbes believed it was aware…of every man, against every man (Leviathan, 232), while Nietzsche held the belief that the human race was a large herd. On morality Nietzsche and Hobbes do not see eye to eye, Nietzsche did not belief in any sort of morals while Hobbes used the Bible as his main moral cookbook, these two radically different ideas do not match up whatsoever. In conclusion Nietzsche and Hobbes are two philosophers with very different life philosophies.

Bibliography:

Primary Sources: Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. Toronto, 1985. Penguin Classics. Nietzsche, Friedrich. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Toronto, 1982. Penguin Books. Nietzsche, Friedrich. The Anti-Christ. Toronto, 1982. Penguin Books. Nietzsche, Friedrich. Human, All Too Human. Toronto, 1986. Penguin Books. Nietzsche, Friedrich. The Will to Power. Toronto, 1982. Penguin Books. Nietzsche, Friedrich. Daybreak. Toronto, 1984. Penguin Books. Secondary Sources: Grayman, Helen. Broward College. Lecture Notes. Johnston, Ian. Malaspina University. Lecture Notes. Kropotkin, Peter. Ethics: Origins and Development. 1989. George E. Harrap & Co.,Ltd. Rainer, Howard. Davis University. Lecture Notes. Biography: Book of Exodus, the Bible. Hobbes, Thomas. The Citizen: Liberty-Dominion-Religion. Toronto, 1981. Penguin Books Nietzsche, Friedrich. The Gay Science. Toronto, 1982. Penguin Books Nietzsche, Friedrich. Twilight of the Idols. Toronto, 1982. Penguin Books

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